Simulation 3D Fisheye Camera

Fisheye camera sensor model in 3D simulation environment

  • Library:
  • Automated Driving Toolbox / Simulation 3D

Description

The Simulation 3D Fisheye Camera block provides an interface to a camera with a fisheye lens in a 3D simulation environment. This environment is rendered using the Unreal Engine® from Epic Games®. The sensor is based on the fisheye camera model proposed by Scaramuzza [1]. The block outputs an image with the specified camera distortion and size. You can also output the location and orientation of the camera in the world coordinate system of the scene.

If you set Sample time to -1, the block uses the sample time specified in the Simulation 3D Scene Configuration block. To use this sensor, you must include a Simulation 3D Scene Configuration block in your model.

Note

The Simulation 3D Scene Configuration block must execute before the Simulation 3D Fisheye Camera block. That way, the Unreal Engine 3D visualization environment prepares the data before the Simulation 3D Fisheye Camera block receives it. To check the block execution order, right-click the blocks and select Properties. On the General tab, confirm these Priority settings:

  • Simulation 3D Scene Configuration0

  • Simulation 3D Fisheye Camera1

For more information about execution order, see How 3D Simulation for Automated Driving Works.

Ports

Output

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3D output camera image, returned as an m-by-n-by-3 array of RGB triplet values. m is the vertical resolution of the image, and n is the horizontal resolution of the image.

Data Types: int8 | uint8

Sensor location along the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis of the scene. The Location values are in the world coordinates of the scene. In this coordinate system, the Z-axis points up from the ground. Units are in meters.

Dependencies

To enable this port, on the Ground Truth tab, select Output location (m) and orientation (rad).

Data Types: double

Roll, pitch, and yaw sensor orientation about the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis of the scene. The Orientation values are in the world coordinates of the scene. These values are positive in the clockwise direction when looking in the positive directions of these axes. Units are in radians.

Dependencies

To enable this port, on the Ground Truth tab, select Output location (m) and orientation (rad).

Data Types: double

Parameters

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Mounting

Unique sensor identifier, specified as a positive integer. In a multisensor system, the sensor identifier distinguishes between sensors. When you add a new sensor block to your model, the Sensor identifier of that block is N + 1. N is the highest Sensor identifier value among existing sensor blocks in the model.

Example: 2

Name of the parent to which the sensor is mounted, specified as Scene Origin or as the name of a vehicle in your model. The vehicle names that you can select correspond to the Name parameters of the Simulation 3D Vehicle with Ground Following blocks in your model. If you select Scene Origin, the block places a sensor at the scene origin.

Example: SimulinkVehicle1

Sensor mounting location.

  • When Parent name is Scene Origin, the block mounts the sensor to the origin of the scene, and Mounting location can be set to Origin only. During simulation, the sensor remains stationary.

  • When Parent name is the name of a vehicle (for example, SimulinkVehicle1) the block mounts the sensor to one of the predefined mounting locations described in the table. During simulation, the sensor travels with the vehicle.

Vehicle Mounting LocationDescriptionOrientation Relative to Vehicle Origin [Roll, Pitch, Yaw] (deg)
Origin

Forward-facing sensor mounted to the vehicle origin, which is on the ground, at the geometric center of the vehicle (see Coordinate Systems for 3D Simulation in Automated Driving Toolbox)

[0, 0, 0]
Front bumper

Forward-facing sensor mounted to the front bumper

[0, 0, 0]
Rear bumper

Backward-facing sensor mounted to the rear bumper

[0, 0, 180]
Right mirror

Downward-facing sensor mounted to the right side-view mirror

[0, –90, 0]
Left mirror

Downward-facing sensor mounted to the left side-view mirror

[0, –90, 0]
Rearview mirror

Forward-facing sensor mounted to the rearview mirror, inside the vehicle

[0, 0, 0]
Hood center

Forward-facing sensor mounted to the center of the hood

[0, 0, 0]
Roof center

Forward-facing sensor mounted to the center of the roof

[0, 0, 0]

The (X, Y, Z) location of the sensor relative to the vehicle depends on the vehicle type. To specify the vehicle type, use the Type parameter of the Simulation 3D Vehicle with Ground Following block to which you are mounting. The tables show the X, Y, and Z locations of sensors in the vehicle coordinate system. In this coordinate system:

  • The X-axis points forward from the vehicle.

  • The Y-axis points to the left of the vehicle, as viewed when facing forward.

  • The Z-axis points up from the ground.

  • Roll, pitch, and yaw are clockwise-positive when looking in the positive direction of the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis, respectively. When looking at a vehicle from the top down, then the yaw angle (that is, the orientation angle) is counterclockwise-positive, because you are looking in the negative direction of the axis.

Muscle Car — Sensor Locations Relative to Vehicle Origin

Mounting LocationX (m)Y (m)Z (m)
Front bumper2.4700.45
Rear bumper–2.4700.45

Right mirror

0.43–1.081.01

Left mirror

0.431.081.01

Rearview mirror

0.3201.20

Hood center

1.2801.14

Roof center

–0.2501.58

Sedan — Sensor Locations Relative to Vehicle Origin

Mounting LocationX (m)Y (m)Z (m)
Front bumper2.4200.51
Rear bumper–2.4200.51

Right mirror

0.59–0.941.09

Left mirror

0.590.941.09

Rearview mirror

0.4301.31

Hood center

1.4601.11

Roof center

–0.4501.69

Sport Utility Vehicle — Sensor Locations Relative to Vehicle Origin

Mounting LocationX (m)Y (m)Z (m)
Front bumper2.4200.51
Rear bumper–2.4200.51

Right mirror

0.60–11.35

Left mirror

0.6011.35

Rearview mirror

0.3901.55

Hood center

1.5801.39

Roof center

–0.5602

Small Pickup Truck — Sensor Locations Relative to Vehicle Origin

Mounting LocationX (m)Y (m)Z (m)
Front bumper3.0700.51
Rear bumper–3.0700.51

Right mirror

1.10–1.131.52

Left mirror

1.101.131.52

Rearview mirror

0.8501.77

Hood center

2.2201.59

Roof center

002.27

Hatchback — Sensor Locations Relative to Vehicle Origin

Mounting LocationX (m)Y (m)Z (m)
Front bumper1.9300.51
Rear bumper–1.9300.51

Right mirror

0.43–0.841.01

Left mirror

0.430.841.01

Rearview mirror

0.3201.27

Hood center

1.4401.01

Roof center

001.57

To determine the location of the sensor in world coordinates, open the sensor block. Then, on the Ground Truth tab, select Output location (m) and orientation (rad) and inspect the data from the Location output port.

Select this parameter to specify an offset from the mounting location by using the Relative translation [X, Y, Z] (m) and Relative rotation [Roll, Pitch, Yaw] (deg) parameters.

Translation offset relative to the mounting location of the sensor, specified as a real-valued 1-by-3 vector of the form [X, Y, Z]. Units are in meters.

If you mount the sensor to a vehicle by setting Parent name to the name of that vehicle, then X, Y, and Z are in the vehicle coordinate system, where:

  • The X-axis points forward from the vehicle.

  • The Y-axis points to the left of the vehicle, as viewed when facing forward .

  • The Z-axis points up.

The origin is the mounting location specified in the Mounting location parameter. This origin is different from the vehicle origin, which is the geometric center of the vehicle.

If you mount the sensor to the scene origin by setting Parent name to Scene Origin, then X, Y, and Z are in the world coordinates of the scene.

For more details about the vehicle and world coordinate systems, see Coordinate Systems for 3D Simulation in Automated Driving Toolbox.

Example: [0,0,0.01]

Dependencies

To enable this parameter, select Specify offset.

Rotational offset relative to the mounting location of the sensor, specified as a real-valued 1-by-3 vector of the form [Roll, Pitch, Yaw] . Roll, pitch, and yaw are the angles of rotation about the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively. Units are in degrees.

If you mount the sensor to a vehicle by setting Parent name to the name of that vehicle, then X, Y, and Z are in the vehicle coordinate system, where:

  • The X-axis points forward from the vehicle.

  • The Y-axis points to the left of the vehicle, as viewed when facing forward .

  • The Z-axis points up.

  • Roll, pitch, and yaw are clockwise-positive when looking in the forward direction of the X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis, respectively. If you view a scene from a 2D top-down perspective, then the yaw angle (also called the orientation angle) is counterclockwise-positive, because you are viewing the scene in the negative direction of the Z-axis.

The origin is the mounting location specified in the Mounting location parameter. This origin is different from the vehicle origin, which is the geometric center of the vehicle.

If you mount the sensor to the scene origin by setting Parent name to Scene Origin, then X, Y, and Z are in the world coordinates of the scene.

For more details about the vehicle and world coordinate systems, see Coordinate Systems for 3D Simulation in Automated Driving Toolbox.

Example: [0,0,10]

Dependencies

To enable this parameter, select Specify offset.

Sample time of the block in seconds, specified as a positive scalar. The 3D simulation environment frame rate is the inverse of the sample time.

If you set the sample time to -1, the block inherits its sample time from the Simulation 3D Scene Configuration block.

Parameters

These intrinsic camera parameters are equivalent to the properties of a fisheyeIntrinsics object. To obtain the intrinsic parameters for your camera, use the Camera Calibrator app.

Center of distortion, specified as real-valued 2-element vector. Units are in pixels.

Image size produced by the camera, specified as a real-valued 1-by-2 vector of positive integers of the form [mrows,ncols]. Units are in pixels.

Polynomial coefficients for the projection function described by Scaramuzza's Taylor model [1], specified as a real-valued 1-by-4 vector of the form [a0 a2 a3 a4].

Example: [1, 1, 0, 0]

Ground Truth

Select this parameter to output the location and orientation of the sensor at the Location and Orientation ports, respectively.

Tips

References

[1] Scaramuzza, D., A. Martinelli, and R. Siegwart. "A Toolbox for Easy Calibrating Omindirectional Cameras." Proceedings to IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2006). Beijing, China, October 7–15, 2006.

Introduced in R2019b