Main Content

Analysis of Ultrawideband Trident Inset-Fed Monopole Antenna with Conical Ground

This example shows how to analyze the performance of a U-shaped monopole antenna designed on a PCB and mounted on a conical ground. You achieve low-frequency matching by inserting a trident inset feed. The conical ground with an elliptical shape at the base of the radiator outperforms traditional UWB monopole designs in impedance-matching bandwidth and radiation pattern omnidirectivity [1].

Create Conical Ground

Create a circle with a radius equal to the cone base radius. Extrude the circle in the positive z-direction to a height of 35 mm with a scaling factor of 0.25, thereby generating the cone with a top radius of 12.5 mm.

Reorient the cone in the negative z-direction so the top of the cone alligns with the xy-plane.

c = shape.Circle(Radius=50e-3);
outerBottom = extrudeLinear(c,35e-3,Direction=[0,0,1],Scale=0.25,caps=true);
[~] = translate(outerBottom,[0 0 -35e-3]);

The center of the ground does not have a clean edge for attaching the feed because of the diagonal edge. The top and bottom surfaces of the cone are closed.

show(outerBottom)
view([10 -8])
title("Extruded Cone with Closed Top and Bottom");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Extruded Cone with Closed Top and Bottom, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains an object of type patch.

Use removeFaces to remove the bottom face from the cone. Alternatively, you can use removeFaces without specifying a face number through an interactive panel by selecting the relevant face.

removeFaces(outerBottom,3);
view([10 -8])
title("Cone with Removed Bottom Face");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Cone with Removed Bottom Face, xlabel x-axis, ylabel y-axis contains 62 objects of type patch.

Imprint Feed Edge

To make sure that the feed edge does not split in future operations, imprint a horizontal feed edge on top face of the cone. This imprint ensures a robust connection to the feed.

show(outerBottom)
view(2)
title("Top Face of Cone with Diagonal Edge");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Top Face of Cone with Diagonal Edge, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains an object of type patch.

imprintStrip = shape.Rectangle(Length=2e-3,Width=2e-3,Center=[1e-3 0]);
outerBottom = imprintShape(outerBottom,imprintStrip);
show(outerBottom)
view(2)
title("Cone with Vertical Edge Center of Top Face");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Cone with Vertical Edge Center of Top Face, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains an object of type patch.

Rotate and reorient the cone.

[~] = rotateY(outerBottom,90);
d = 4.5e-3; % Gap between monopole and ground
l = 75e-3; % Length of monopole
[~] = translate(outerBottom,[-(0.5*l)-d 0 0]);

Create Trident Inset Feed

Create the trident feed geometry from defined parameters. The dimesions of feed are defined in [1]. Modify the values of r and q to match the created geometry. Complete geometry details are not available.

t = 16.7e-3; 
r = 1.25e-3;
q = 0.15e-3;
n = 1.5e-3;
m = 0.5*(t-(6*q)-(3*n));
rectW = r + (2*n);
rectL = t - (2*q);
rectF = shape.Rectangle(Length=rectW,Width=rectL,Center=[(0.5*r)-n 0]);
show(rectF)
title("Strip to Modify as Trident Feed");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Strip to Modify as Trident Feed, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

Create rectangles to subtract for making holes.

holeW = r + n;
holeL = m + (2*q);
offset = 1e-3;
rectLH = shape.Rectangle(Length=holeW+(2*offset),Width=holeL,Center=[(0.5*(r-n))+offset q+0.5*(m+n)]);
rectRH = shape.Rectangle(Length=holeW+(2*offset),Width=holeL,Center=[(0.5*(r-n))+offset -q-0.5*(m+n)]);
hole = rectLH + rectRH;
rectF = subtract(rectF,hole);
show(rectF)
title("Rectangle with Cuts");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Rectangle with Cuts, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

Create triangles to subtract for making mitred bends.

lc = shape.Polygon(Vertices=[(-2*n) (0.5*rectL)-n;-n (0.5*rectL);-(2*n) (0.5*rectL);]);
rc = shape.Polygon(Vertices=[(-2*n) (-0.5*rectL)+n;-n (-0.5*rectL);-(2*n) (-0.5*rectL);]);
cornerCuts = lc + rc;
rectF = subtract(rectF,cornerCuts);
show(rectF)
title("Rectangle with Mitred Bends");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Rectangle with Mitred Bends, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

Create rectangles to add for making fills.

fillL = m;
fillW = r;
fillLH = shape.Rectangle(Length=fillW,Width=fillL,Center=[0.5*r q+0.5*(m+n)]);
fillRH = shape.Rectangle(Length=fillW,Width=fillL,Center=[0.5*r -q-0.5*(m+n)]);
fill = add(fillLH,fillRH);
rectF = add(fill,rectF);
show(rectF)
title("Shape with Added Fills");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Shape with Added Fills, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 4 objects of type patch.

Create rectangle to add as the input line.

rectInp = shape.Rectangle(Length=n,Width=n,Center=[(-2.5*n) 0]);
rectF = add(rectF,rectInp);

Use the removeSlivers function to remove very small triangles.

rectF = removeSlivers(rectF,1e-6);
show(rectF);
title("Trident Feed");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Trident Feed, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

Create U-shaped Monopole

Create a U-shaped monopole using the defined geometry parameters.

etchWidth = 1.2e-3; % Thickness of monopole etched from the edges
w = 61.2e-3; % Width of the monopole
weff = w-(2*etchWidth); % Effective width of the monopole after etching
a = 16.9e-3; % Major axis of elliptical curve on the bottom side of monopole
b = 12e-3; % Minor axis of elliptical curve on the bottom side of monopole
angl = 90:5:180; % Input angles to generate points for leftside curve
l1 = (-0.5*l) + b*(cosd(angl)+1); % Parametric coordinate notation of ellipse
l2 = (0.5*weff) + (a*(sind(angl)-1)); % Parametric coordinate notation of ellipse
angl = 180:5:270; % Input angles to generate points for rightside curve
r1 = (-0.5*l) + b*(cosd(angl)+1); % Parametric coordinate notation of ellipse
r2 = (-0.5*weff) + (a*(sind(angl)+1)); % Parametric coordinate notation of ellipse

Create a polygon using the generated vertices and visualize the U-shaped structure.

s = shape.Polygon(Vertices=[[0.5*l l1 r1 0.5*l]',[0.5*weff l2 r2 -0.5*weff]']);
show(s)
title("U-shaped Monopole");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title U-shaped Monopole, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

Add Trident Feed to U-shaped Monopole

Create a rectangle to remove from the monopole for placing the feed. Make a hole in the monopole and add the trident to the resulting shape.

feedCut = shape.Rectangle(Length=r,Width=t,Center=[-0.5*(l-r) 0]);
[~] = translate(rectF,[(-0.5*l) 0 0]);
s = subtract(s,feedCut);
show(s)
title("Monopole with Feed Slot");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Monopole with Feed Slot, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

s = add(rectF,s);

Use the removeSlivers function to remove very small triangles.

s=removeSlivers(s,1e-6);
show(s)
title("Monopole with Trident Feed");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Monopole with Trident Feed, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 2 objects of type patch.

Add Conical Ground to U-shaped Monopole

Add conical ground to the U-shaped monopole and visualize the resulting structure.

tmetal = add(s,outerBottom);
show(tmetal)
title("Monopole with Trident Feed and Conical Ground");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Monopole with Trident Feed and Conical Ground, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 3 objects of type patch.

Add Substrate to U-shaped Monopole with Ground

Create and add a substrate to the U-shaped monopole with a ground structure.

Create a box for assigning the substrate. Create a bounding box of air to contain the substrate and the U-shaped monopole with a ground. Defining this box is necessary because the mesher requires closed mesh as input.

box = shape.Box(Length=l+d,Width=w,Height=0.8e-3,Center=[-0.48*d 0 -0.4e-3],Dielectric="FR4",Color="g");
closedBox = shape.Box(Length=160e-3,Width=120e-3,Height=120e-3,Dielectric="Air",Color="b",Transparency=0.1);

Add a substrate in the air bounding box.

mbox = box + closedBox;
show(mbox,EnableIndividualColors=true)
title("Air Bounding Box with Added Dielectric");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Air Bounding Box with Added Dielectric, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 3 objects of type patch.

Pass the substrate with the air box to the addSubstrate function to enclose the substrate with a metal box.

sb = addSubstrate(tmetal,mbox);
show(sb,EnableIndividualColors=true)
title("Metal Box Enclosure for Dielectric Substrate");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Metal Box Enclosure for Dielectric Substrate, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 1547 objects of type patch.

Create U-shaped Monopole Antenna with Conical Ground

Use the customAntenna object to convert the U-shaped monopole structure with a ground to an antenna. Create the feed, assign it to the antenna, and visualize the result.

ca = customAntenna(Shape=sb);
[~] = createFeed(ca,[-0.0445 0 0],1);
show(ca)

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title customAntenna antenna element, xlabel x (mm), ylabel y (mm) contains 7 objects of type patch, surface. These objects represent PEC, feed, sub1.

Manually Mesh Antenna

Manually mesh the antenna with an maximum edge length of 0.007 m.

mesh(ca,MaxEdgeLength=0.007);

Figure contains an axes object and an object of type uicontrol. The axes object with title Metal-Dielectric, xlabel x (m), ylabel y (m) contains 3 objects of type patch, surface. These objects represent PEC, feed.

Analyze U-shaped Monopole Antenna

Calculate and plot the reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, and gain against frequency.

Plot Reflection Coefficient

Plot the reflection coefficient for this antenna over a frequency band of 0.5 GHz to 8 GHz and a reference impedance of 50 ohms.

sparam = sparameters(ca,linspace(0.5e9,8e9,60));
figure
rfplot(sparam)
title("Return Loss of Monopole Antenna with Conical Ground");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Return Loss of Monopole Antenna with Conical Ground, xlabel Frequency (GHz), ylabel Magnitude (dB) contains an object of type line. This object represents dB(S_{11}).

Plot Radiation Pattern

Plot the radiation pattern for this antenna at center frequency of 4 GHz.

pattern(ca,4e9);
view([-90 -90]);
title("Radiation Pattern at 4 GHz");

Figure contains an axes object and other objects of type uicontrol. The axes object contains 7 objects of type patch, surface. This object represents sub1.

Plot Gain Against Frequency

The gradual increment of gain with frequency in UWB antennas is due to the increase of ground size to radiator ratio as the frequency increases. The variation in this design is low as compared to traditional designs [1].

fr = 0.5e9:0.15e9:8e9; % Frequency sweep
h = zeros(size(fr));

Calculate gain at each frequecy.

for i = 1:length(fr)
    p = pattern(ca,fr(i));
    h(i) = max(max(p));
end
plot(fr,h)
ylim([0 8]);
grid on;
title("Gain of UWB Monopole Antenna");

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object with title Gain of UWB Monopole Antenna contains an object of type line.

Conclusion

In this example, you build and analyze the basic structure of the Trident inset-fed UWB antenna. The results closely match the reference. The minor deviation in results is likely due to missing geometry information.

References

[1] Dzagbletey, Philip Ayiku, Jin-Young Jeong, and Jae-Young Chung. “Ultra-Wideband Trident Inset-Fed Monopole Antenna With a 3-D Conical Ground.” IEEE Access 9 (2021): 2592–2601. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3047424.

See Also

Objects

Functions

Related Examples

More About