These lines find linear indices not [row, col] subsets. Linear indices go along all the rows of the first column, then on to the second column and so on.
These two lines also disregard i and j completely, so they always give the absolute first and last linear indices in the entire matrix each iteration (5 and 18).
I dont know what exactly you're trying to achieve, but maybe you need to compare only current row:
index_1 = find(A(i,:)==3,1,'first');
index_2 = find(A(i,:)==3,1,'last');
Look here for explanation on array indexing in Matlab
if A(i,j)=3 & A(i,j)==index_1
This condition compares the value of A(i,j) to 3 and to the first index which equals 3, that makes little sence to me, but i may be missing your intent
If you explain with more detail what you are trying to do, we may be able to help you get to the right solution