Nowadays on Ubuntu 16.04 you need to do both steps.
1) sudo apt-get install matlab-support
Then follow instructions.
2) Open a Terminal on your home folder and then "sudo chown username -R ~/.matlab"
Finally if you want full integration with your operating system , like being able to opening .m files directly by doing double click, you need to edit /usr/share/applications/matlab.desktop
Find "Exec=" line and replace with: Exec=matlab -desktop -r "cd %d"
Then you have matlab as an "Open With" application option.