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fitlda

Fit latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model

A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model is a topic model which discovers underlying topics in a collection of documents and infers word probabilities in topics. If the model was fit using a bag-of-n-grams model, then the software treats the n-grams as individual words.

Syntax

mdl = fitlda(bag,numTopics)
mdl = fitlda(counts,numTopics)
mdl = fitlda(___,Name,Value)

Description

example

mdl = fitlda(bag,numTopics) fits an LDA model with numTopics topics to the bag-of-words or bag-of-n-grams model bag.

example

mdl = fitlda(counts,numTopics) fits an LDA model to the documents represented by a matrix of frequency counts.

mdl = fitlda(___,Name,Value) specifies additional options using one or more name-value pair arguments.

Examples

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To reproduce the results in this example, set rng to 'default'.

rng('default')

Load the example data. The file sonnetsPreprocessed.txt contains preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The file contains one sonnet per line, with words separated by a space. Extract the text from sonnetsPreprocessed.txt, split the text into documents at newline characters, and then tokenize the documents.

filename = "sonnetsPreprocessed.txt";
str = extractFileText(filename);
textData = split(str,newline);
documents = tokenizedDocument(textData);

Create a bag-of-words model using bagOfWords.

bag = bagOfWords(documents)
bag = 
  bagOfWords with properties:

          Counts: [154x3092 double]
      Vocabulary: [1x3092 string]
        NumWords: 3092
    NumDocuments: 154

Fit an LDA model with four topics.

numTopics = 4;
mdl = fitlda(bag,numTopics)
Initial topic assignments sampled in 0.371892 seconds.
=====================================================================================
| Iteration  |  Time per  |  Relative  |  Training  |     Topic     |     Topic     |
|            | iteration  | change in  | perplexity | concentration | concentration |
|            | (seconds)  |   log(L)   |            |               |   iterations  |
=====================================================================================
|          0 |       0.02 |            |  1.215e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
|          1 |       0.05 | 1.0482e-02 |  1.128e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
|          2 |       0.03 | 1.7190e-03 |  1.115e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
|          3 |       0.04 | 4.3796e-04 |  1.118e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
|          4 |       0.05 | 9.4193e-04 |  1.111e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
|          5 |       0.08 | 3.7079e-04 |  1.108e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
|          6 |       0.05 | 9.5777e-05 |  1.107e+03 |         1.000 |             0 |
=====================================================================================
mdl = 
  ldaModel with properties:

                     NumTopics: 4
             WordConcentration: 1
            TopicConcentration: 1
      CorpusTopicProbabilities: [0.2500 0.2500 0.2500 0.2500]
    DocumentTopicProbabilities: [154x4 double]
        TopicWordProbabilities: [3092x4 double]
                    Vocabulary: [1x3092 string]
                    TopicOrder: 'initial-fit-probability'
                       FitInfo: [1x1 struct]

Visualize the topics using word clouds.

figure
for topicIdx = 1:4
    subplot(2,2,topicIdx)
    wordcloud(mdl,topicIdx);
    title("Topic: " + topicIdx)
end

Fit an LDA model to a collection of documents represented by a word count matrix.

To reproduce the results of this example, set rng to 'default'.

rng('default')

Load the example data. sonnetsCounts.mat contains a matrix of word counts and a corresponding vocabulary of preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The value counts(i,j) corresponds to the number of times the jth word of the vocabulary appears in the ith document.

load sonnetsCounts.mat
size(counts)
ans = 1×2

         154        3092

Fit an LDA model with 7 topics. To suppress the verbose output, set 'Verbose' to 0.

numTopics = 7;
mdl = fitlda(counts,numTopics,'Verbose',0);

Visualize multiple topic mixtures using stacked bar charts. Visualize the topic mixtures of the first three input documents.

topicMixtures = transform(mdl,counts(1:3,:));
figure
barh(topicMixtures,'stacked')
xlim([0 1])
title("Topic Mixtures")
xlabel("Topic Probability")
ylabel("Document")
legend("Topic "+ string(1:numTopics),'Location','northeastoutside')

To reproduce the results in this example, set rng to 'default'.

rng('default')

Load the example data. The file sonnetsPreprocessed.txt contains preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The file contains one sonnet per line, with words separated by a space. Extract the text from sonnetsPreprocessed.txt, split the text into documents at newline characters, and then tokenize the documents.

filename = "sonnetsPreprocessed.txt";
str = extractFileText(filename);
textData = split(str,newline);
documents = tokenizedDocument(textData);

Create a bag-of-words model using bagOfWords.

bag = bagOfWords(documents)
bag = 
  bagOfWords with properties:

          Counts: [154x3092 double]
      Vocabulary: [1x3092 string]
        NumWords: 3092
    NumDocuments: 154

Fit an LDA model with 20 topics.

numTopics = 20;
mdl = fitlda(bag,numTopics)
Initial topic assignments sampled in 0.30173 seconds.
=====================================================================================
| Iteration  |  Time per  |  Relative  |  Training  |     Topic     |     Topic     |
|            | iteration  | change in  | perplexity | concentration | concentration |
|            | (seconds)  |   log(L)   |            |               |   iterations  |
=====================================================================================
|          0 |       0.31 |            |  1.159e+03 |         5.000 |             0 |
|          1 |       0.11 | 5.4884e-02 |  8.028e+02 |         5.000 |             0 |
|          2 |       0.10 | 4.7400e-03 |  7.778e+02 |         5.000 |             0 |
|          3 |       0.09 | 3.4597e-03 |  7.602e+02 |         5.000 |             0 |
|          4 |       0.12 | 3.4662e-03 |  7.430e+02 |         5.000 |             0 |
|          5 |       0.14 | 2.9259e-03 |  7.288e+02 |         5.000 |             0 |
|          6 |       0.11 | 6.4180e-05 |  7.291e+02 |         5.000 |             0 |
=====================================================================================
mdl = 
  ldaModel with properties:

                     NumTopics: 20
             WordConcentration: 1
            TopicConcentration: 5
      CorpusTopicProbabilities: [1x20 double]
    DocumentTopicProbabilities: [154x20 double]
        TopicWordProbabilities: [3092x20 double]
                    Vocabulary: [1x3092 string]
                    TopicOrder: 'initial-fit-probability'
                       FitInfo: [1x1 struct]

Predict the top topics for an array of new documents.

newDocuments = tokenizedDocument([
    "what's in a name? a rose by any other name would smell as sweet."
    "if music be the food of love, play on."]);
topicIdx = predict(mdl,newDocuments)
topicIdx = 2×1

    19
     8

Visualize the predicted topics using word clouds.

figure
subplot(1,2,1)
wordcloud(mdl,topicIdx(1));
title("Topic " + topicIdx(1))
subplot(1,2,2)
wordcloud(mdl,topicIdx(2));
title("Topic " + topicIdx(2))

Input Arguments

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Input bag-of-words or bag-of-n-grams model, specified as a bagOfWords object or a bagOfNgrams object. If bag is a bagOfNgrams object, then the function treats the n-grams as individual words.

Number of topics, specified as a positive integer. For an example showing how to choose the number of topics, see Choose Number of Topics for LDA Model.

Example: 200

Frequency counts of words, specified as a matrix of nonnegative integers. If you specify 'DocumentsIn' to be 'rows', then the value counts(i,j) corresponds to the number of times the jth word of the vocabulary appears in the ith document. Otherwise, the value counts(i,j) corresponds to the number of times the ith word of the vocabulary appears in the jth document.

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: 'Solver','avb' specifies to use approximate variational Bayes as the solver.

Solver Options

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Solver for optimization, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Solver' and one of the following:

Stochastic Solver

  • 'savb' – Use stochastic approximate variational Bayes [1] [2]. This solver is best suited for large datasets and can fit a good model in fewer passes of the data.

Batch Solvers

  • 'cgs' – Use collapsed Gibbs sampling [3]. This solver can be more accurate at the cost of taking longer to run. The resume function does not support models fitted with CGS.

  • 'avb' – Use approximate variational Bayes [4]. This solver typically runs more quickly than collapsed Gibbs sampling and collapsed variational Bayes, but can be less accurate.

  • 'cvb0' – Use collapsed variational Bayes, zeroth order [4] [5]. This solver can be more accurate than approximate variational Bayes at the cost of taking longer to run.

For an example showing how to compare solvers, see Compare LDA Solvers.

Example: 'Solver','savb'

Relative tolerance on log-likelihood, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'LogLikelihoodTolerance' and a positive scalar. The optimization terminates when this tolerance is reached.

Example: 'LogLikelihoodTolerance',0.001

Option for fitting topic concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'FitTopicConcentration' and either true or false.

The function fits the Dirichlet prior α=α0(p1p2pK) on the topic mixtures, where α0 is the topic concentration and p1,,pK are the corpus topic probabilities which sum to 1.

Example: 'FitTopicProbabilities',false

Data Types: logical

Option for fitting topic concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'FitTopicConcentration' and either true or false.

For batch the solvers 'cgs', 'avb', and 'cvb0', the default for FitTopicConcentration is true. For the stochastic solver 'savb', the default is false.

The function fits the Dirichlet prior α=α0(p1p2pK) on the topic mixtures, where α0 is the topic concentration and p1,,pK are the corpus topic probabilities which sum to 1.

Example: 'FitTopicConcentration',false

Data Types: logical

Initial estimate of the topic concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'InitialTopicConcentration' and a nonnegative scalar. The function sets the concentration per topic to TopicConcentration/NumTopics. For more information, see Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

Example: 'InitialTopicConcentration',25

Topic order, specified as one of the following:

  • 'initial-fit-probability' – Sort the topics by the corpus topic probabilities of input document set (the CorpusTopicProbabilities property).

  • 'unordered' – Do not sort the topics.

Word concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'WordConcentration' and a nonnegative scalar. The software sets the Dirichlet prior on the topics (the word probabilities per topic) to be the symmetric Dirichlet distribution parameter with the value WordConcentration/numWords, where numWords is the vocabulary size of the input documents. For more information, see Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

Orientation of documents in the word count matrix, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'DocumentsIn' and one of the following:

  • 'rows' – Input is a matrix of word counts with rows corresponding to documents.

  • 'columns' – Input is a transposed matrix of word counts with columns corresponding to documents.

This option only applies if you specify the input documents as a matrix of word counts.

Note

If you orient your word count matrix so that documents correspond to columns and specify 'DocumentsIn','columns', then you might experience a significant reduction in optimization-execution time.

Batch Solver Options

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Maximum number of iterations, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'IterationLimit' and a positive integer.

This option supports batch solvers only ('cgs', 'avb', or 'cvb0').

Example: 'IterationLimit',200

Stochastic Solver Options

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Maximum number of passes through the data, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'DataPassLimit' and a positive integer.

If you specify 'DataPassLimit' but not 'MiniBatchLimit', then the default value of 'MiniBatchLimit' is ignored. If you specify both 'DataPassLimit' and 'MiniBatchLimit', then fitlda uses the argument that results in processing the fewest observations.

This option supports only the stochastic ('savb') solver.

Example: 'DataPassLimit',2

Maximum number of mini-batch passes, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'MiniBatchLimit' and a positive integer.

If you specify 'MiniBatchLimit' but not 'DataPassLimit', then fitlda ignores the default value of 'DataPassLimit'. If you specify both 'MiniBatchLimit' and 'DataPassLimit', then fitlda uses the argument that results in processing the fewest observations. The default value is ceil(numDocuments/MiniBatchSize), where numDocuments is the number of input documents.

This option supports only the stochastic ('savb') solver.

Example: 'MiniBatchLimit',200

Mini-batch size, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'MiniBatchLimit' and a positive integer. The function processes MiniBatchSize documents in each iteration.

This option supports only the stochastic ('savb') solver.

Example: 'MiniBatchSize',512

Learning rate decay, specified as the comma-separated pair 'LearnRateDecay' and a positive scalar less than or equal to 1.

For mini-batch t, the function sets the learning rate to η(t)=1/(1+t)κ, where κ is the learning rate decay.

If LearnRateDecay is close to 1, then the learning rate decays faster and the model learns mostly from the earlier mini-batches. If LearnRateDecay is close to 0, then the learning rate decays slower and the model continues to learn from more mini-batches. For more information, see Stochastic Solver.

This option supports the stochastic solver only ('savb').

Example: 'LearnRateDecay',0.75

Display Options

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Validation data to monitor optimization convergence, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'ValidationData' and a bagOfWords object, a bagOfNgrams object, or a sparse matrix of word counts. If the validation data is a matrix, then the data must have the same orientation and the same number of words as the input documents.

Verbosity level, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Verbose' and one of the following:

  • 0 – Do not display verbose output.

  • 1 – Display progress information.

Example: 'Verbose',0

Output Arguments

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Output LDA model, returned as an ldaModel object.

More About

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Latent Dirichlet Allocation

A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model is a document topic model which discovers underlying topics in a collection of documents and infers word probabilities in topics. LDA models a collection of D documents as topic mixtures θ1,,θD, over K topics characterized by vectors of word probabilities φ1,,φK. The model assumes that the topic mixtures θ1,,θD, and the topics φ1,,φK follow a Dirichlet distribution with concentration parameters α and β respectively.

The topic mixtures θ1,,θD are probability vectors of length K, where K is the number of topics. The entry θdi is the probability of topic i appearing in the dth document. The topic mixtures correspond to the rows of the DocumentTopicProbabilities property of the ldaModel object.

The topics φ1,,φK are probability vectors of length V, where V is the number of words in the vocabulary. The entry φiv corresponds to the probability of the vth word of the vocabulary appearing in the ith topic. The topics φ1,,φK correspond to the columns of the TopicWordProbabilities property of the ldaModel object.

Given the topics φ1,,φK and Dirichlet prior α on the topic mixtures, LDA assumes the following generative process for a document:

  1. Sample a topic mixture θ~Dirichlet(α). The random variable θ is a probability vector of length K, where K is the number of topics.

  2. For each word in the document:

    1. Sample a topic index z~Categorical(θ). The random variable z is an integer from 1 through K, where K is the number of topics.

    2. Sample a word w~Categorical(φz). The random variable w is an integer from 1 through V, where V is the number of words in the vocabulary, and represents the corresponding word in the vocabulary.

Under this generative process, the joint distribution of a document with words w1,,wN, with topic mixture θ, and with topic indices z1,,zN is given by

p(θ,z,w|α,φ)=p(θ|α)n=1Np(zn|θ)p(wn|zn,φ),

where N is the number of words in the document. Summing the joint distribution over z and then integrating over θ yields the marginal distribution of a document w:

p(w|α,φ)=θp(θ|α)n=1Nznp(zn|θ)p(wn|zn,φ)dθ.

The following diagram illustrates the LDA model as a probabilistic graphical model. Shaded nodes are observed variables, unshaded nodes are latent variables, nodes without outlines are the model parameters. The arrows highlight dependencies between random variables and the plates indicate repeated nodes.

Dirichlet Distribution

The Dirichlet distribution is a continuous generalization of the multinomial distribution. Given the number of categories K2, and concentration parameter α, where α is a vector of positive reals of length K, the probability density function of the Dirichlet distribution is given by

p(θα)=1B(α)i=1Kθiαi1,

where B denotes the multivariate Beta function given by

B(α)=i=1KΓ(αi)Γ(i=1Kαi).

A special case of the Dirichlet distribution is the symmetric Dirichlet distribution. The symmetric Dirichlet distribution is characterized by the concentration parameter α, where all the elements of α are the same.

Stochastic Solver

The stochastic solver processes documents in mini-batches. It updates the per-topic word probabilities using a weighted sum of the probabilities calculated from each mini-batch, and the probabilities from all previous mini-batches.

For mini-batch t, the solver sets the learning rate to η(t)=1/(1+t)κ, where κ is the learning rate decay.

The function uses the learning rate decay to update Φ, the matrix of word probabilities per topic, by setting

Φ(t)=(1η(t))Φ(t1)+η(t)Φ(t*),

where Φ(t*) is the matrix learned from mini-batch t, and Φ(t1) is the matrix learned from mini-batches 1 through t-1.

Before learning begins (when t = 0), the function initializes the initial word probabilities per topic with random values.

Compatibility Considerations

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Behavior changed in R2018b

References

[1] Foulds, James, Levi Boyles, Christopher DuBois, Padhraic Smyth, and Max Welling. "Stochastic collapsed variational Bayesian inference for latent Dirichlet allocation." In Proceedings of the 19th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp. 446–454. ACM, 2013.

[2] Hoffman, Matthew D., David M. Blei, Chong Wang, and John Paisley. "Stochastic variational inference." The Journal of Machine Learning Research 14, no. 1 (2013): 1303–1347.

[3] Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark Steyvers. "Finding scientific topics." Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences 101, no. suppl 1 (2004): 5228–5235.

[4] Asuncion, Arthur, Max Welling, Padhraic Smyth, and Yee Whye Teh. "On smoothing and inference for topic models." In Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, pp. 27–34. AUAI Press, 2009.

[5] Teh, Yee W., David Newman, and Max Welling. "A collapsed variational Bayesian inference algorithm for latent Dirichlet allocation." In Advances in neural information processing systems, pp. 1353–1360. 2007.

Introduced in R2017b