# Solar Cell

Photovoltaic solar cell

**Library:**Simscape / Electrical / Sources

## Description

The Solar Cell block represents a solar cell current source.

The solar cell model includes the following components:

### Solar-Induced Current

The block represents a single solar cell as a resistance
*R _{s}* that is connected in series
with a parallel combination of the following elements:

Current source

Two exponential diodes

Parallel resistor

*R*_{p}

The following illustration shows the equivalent circuit diagram:

The output current *I* is

$$I={I}_{ph}-{I}_{s}*\left({e}^{(V+I*{R}_{s})/(\text{N}*{V}_{t})}-1\right)-{I}_{s2}*({e}^{\left(V+I*{R}_{s}\right)/\left({N}_{2}*{V}_{t}\right)}-1)-\left(V+I*{R}_{s}\right)/{R}_{p}$$

where:

*I*is the solar-induced current:_{ph}$${I}_{ph}={I}_{ph0}\times \frac{{I}_{r}}{{I}_{r0}}$$

where:

*I*is the irradiance (light intensity), in W/m_{r}^{2}, falling on the cell.*I*is the measured solar-generated current for the irradiance_{ph0}*I*._{r0}

*I*is the saturation current of the first diode._{s}*I*is the saturation current of the second diode._{s2}*V*is the thermal voltage,_{t}*kT/q*, where:*k*is the Boltzmann constant.*T*is the**Device simulation temperature**parameter value.*q*is the elementary charge on an electron.

*N*is the quality factor (diode emission coefficient) of the first diode.*N*is the quality factor (diode emission coefficient) of the second diode._{2}*V*is the voltage across the solar cell electrical ports.

The quality factor varies for amorphous cells, and is typically
`2`

for polycrystalline cells.

The block lets you choose between two models:

An 8-parameter model where the preceding equation describes the output current

A 5-parameter model that applies the following simplifying assumptions to the preceding equation:

The saturation current of the second diode is zero.

The impedance of the parallel resistor is infinite.

If you choose the 5-parameter model, you can parameterize this block in terms of the preceding equivalent circuit model parameters or in terms of the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage the block uses to derive these parameters.

All models adjust the block resistance and current parameters as a function of temperature.

You can model any number of solar cells connected in series using a single
Solar Cell block by setting the parameter
**Number of series-connected cells per string** to a value
larger than 1. Internally the block still simulates only the equations for a single
solar cell, but scales up the output voltage according to the number of cells. This
results in a more efficient simulation than if equations for each cell were
simulated individually.

### Temperature Dependence

Several solar cell parameters depend on temperature. The solar cell temperature is
specified by the **Device simulation temperature** parameter
value.

The block provides the following relationship between the solar-induced current
*I _{ph}* and the solar cell temperature

*T*:

$${I}_{ph}(T)={I}_{ph}*\left(1+TIPH1*\left(T-{T}_{meas}\right)\right)$$

where:

*TIPH1*is the**First order temperature coefficient for Iph, TIPH1**parameter value.*T*is the_{meas}**Measurement temperature**parameter value.

The block provides the following relationship between the saturation current of
the first diode *I _{s}* and the solar cell
temperature

*T*:

$${I}_{s}(T)={I}_{s}*{\left(\frac{T}{{T}_{meas}}\right)}^{\left(\raisebox{1ex}{$TXIS1$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$N$}\right.\right)}*{e}^{\left(EG*\left(\frac{T}{{T}_{meas}}-1\right)/\left(N*{V}_{t}\right)\right)}$$

where *TXIS1* is the **Temperature
exponent for Is, TXIS1** parameter value.

The block provides the following relationship between the saturation current of
the second diode *I _{s2}* and the solar cell
temperature

*T*:

$${I}_{s2}(T)={I}_{s2}*{\left(\frac{T}{{T}_{meas}}\right)}^{\left(\raisebox{1ex}{$TXIS2$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{${N}_{2}$}\right.\right)}*{e}^{\left(EG*\left(\frac{T}{{T}_{meas}}-1\right)/\left({N}_{2}*{V}_{t}\right)\right)}$$

where *TXIS2* is the **Temperature
exponent for Is2, TXIS2** parameter value.

The block provides the following relationship between the series resistance
*R _{s}* and the solar cell temperature

*T*:

$${R}_{s}(T)={R}_{s}*{\left(\frac{T}{{T}_{meas}}\right)}^{TRS1}$$

where *TRS1* is the **Temperature
exponent for Rs, TRS1** parameter value.

The block provides the following relationship between the parallel resistance
*R _{p}* and the solar cell temperature

*T*:

$${R}_{p}(T)={R}_{p}*{\left(\frac{T}{{T}_{meas}}\right)}^{TRP1}$$

where *TRP1* is the **Temperature
exponent for Rp, TRP1** parameter value.

### Predefined Parameterization

There are multiple available built-in parameterizations for the Solar Cell block.

This pre-parameterization data allows you to set up the block to represent
components by specific suppliers. The parameterizations of these solar cell modules
match the manufacturer data sheets. To load a predefined parameterization,
double-click the Solar Cell block, click the **<click to
select>** hyperlink of the **Selected part** parameter
and, in the Block Parameterization Manager window, select the part you want to use
from the list of available components.

**Note**

The predefined parameterizations of Simscape™ components use available data sources for the parameter values. Engineering judgement and simplifying assumptions are used to fill in for missing data. As a result, expect deviations between simulated and actual physical behavior. To ensure accuracy, validate the simulated behavior against experimental data and refine component models as necessary.

For more information about pre-parameterization and for a list of the available components, see List of Pre-Parameterized Components.

### Thermal Port

You can expose the thermal port to model the effects of generated heat and device
temperature. To expose the thermal port, set the **Modeling option**
parameter to either:

`No thermal port`

— The block does not contain a thermal port and does not simulate heat generation in the device.`Show thermal port`

— The block contains a thermal port that allows you to model the heat that conduction losses generate. For numerical efficiency, the thermal state does not affect the electrical behavior of the block.

For more information on using thermal ports and on the **Thermal Port**
parameters, see Simulating Thermal Effects in Semiconductors.

The thermal port model, shown in the following illustration, represents just the
thermal mass of the device. The thermal mass is directly connected to the component
thermal port **H**. An internal Ideal Heat Flow
Source block supplies a heat flow to the port and thermal mass.
This heat flow represents the internally generated heat.

The internally generated heat in the solar cell is calculated according to the
equivalent circuit diagram, shown at the beginning of the reference page, in the
Solar-Induced Current section. It is the
sum of the *i*^{2} ·
*R* losses for each of the resistors plus the losses in each of
the diodes.

The internally generated heat due to electrical losses is a separate heating effect to that of the solar irradiation. To model thermal heating due to solar irradiation, you must account for it separately in your model and add the heat flow to the physical node connected to the solar cell thermal port.

## Ports

### Input

### Conserving

## Parameters

## References

[1] Gow, J.A. and C.D. Manning. “Development of a
Photovoltaic Array Model for Use in Power-Electronics Simulation Studies.”
*IEEE Proceedings of Electric Power Applications*, Vol. 146,
No. 2, 1999, pp. 193–200.

## Extended Capabilities

## Version History

**Introduced in R2008a**