OFDM Transmit and Receive Using Xilinx RFSoC Device
This example shows how to simulate and deploy an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmit and receive algorithm in Simulink® using an SoC Blockset™ implementation targeted on a Xilinx® Zynq® UltraScale+™ RFSoC ZCU111 evaluation board. Using this example, you can integrate HDL OFDM Transmitter (Wireless HDL Toolbox) and HDL OFDM Receiver (Wireless HDL Toolbox) examples into the SoC Blockset implementation.
Supported Hardware Platforms
Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC ZCU111 evaluation kit + XM500 Balun card
In this example, the design task is to build a wireless communication system with an OFDM transmitter and receiver and implement the system on a Xilinx RFSoC device. This example shows the workflow for designing, simulating, and deploying the OFDM-based transmit and receive algorithm on the hardware. This figure shows the conceptual overview of the example.
The OFDM Transmitter and OFDM Receiver blocks perform high-speed signal processing tasks and make the OFDM-based transmit and receive algorithm well suited for FPGA implementation on the programmable logic (PL) of the radio platform. To implement this algorithm on the PL, the example uses the Simulink® hardware models from the HDL OFDM Transmitter (Wireless HDL Toolbox) and HDL OFDM Receiver (Wireless HDL Toolbox) examples as model references. The example is also equipped with an internal channel to apply carrier frequency offset (CFO) and an HDL additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel from the HDL Implementation of AWGN Generator (Wireless HDL Toolbox) example. Control signals
snrdB are provided to tune the channel.
Design Using SoC Blockset
Create an SoC model
soc_OFDM_top as the top model and set the Hardware Board to
Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC ZCU111 evaluation kit. The top model includes FPGA model
soc_OFDM_fpga and processor model
soc_OFDM_proc, which are instantiated as model references. The top model also includes AXI4-Stream to Software block that shares the external memory between the FPGA and the processor.
Create an SoC model
soc_OFDM_hwtop as the top model for the simulation of a hardware algorithm with a static configuration. This model includes an FPGA model
RF Data Converter Configuration
An RFSoC device has its RF data converter connected to the PL. To configure the analog to digital converter (ADC) and digital to analog converter (DAC) settings, use the RF Data Converter block. The block provides an interface to the Xilinx RF Data Converter IP in Simulink to model a wireless system destined for implementation on a Xilinx RFSoC device.
To meet the 860 MHz RF carrier frequency and 61.44 Msps baseband sample rate, configure the RF Data Converter block according to the settings described here and shown in the figure.
Set the NCO frequency parameter for the DAC and ADC mixers to
Set the DAC and ADC sample rates to
Choose the values of Interpolation mode (xN), Decimation mode (xN), and Samples per clock cycle parameters such that the effective clock cycle (sample rate) for the wireless algorithm FPGA is the desirable value. For this example, the desired value is 61.44 Msps. This value is calculated and displayed on the block mask as the Stream clock frequency (MHz) parameter after you click Apply.
Set the Decimation mode (xN) parameter to
8. The effective sample rate after decimation is 491.52 Msps.
Set the Samples per clock cycle parameter to
8to get the clock cycle (baseband sample rate) to 61.44 Msps.
Similarly, in the DAC tab, set the Interpolation mode (xN) parameter to
8 and the Samples per clock cycle parameter to
8. With these settings, the Stream clock frequency parameter is 3932.16/(8*8) = 61.44 MHz.
Hardware Logic Design
The FPGA model
soc_OFDM_fpga contains three subsystems:
Vector Interpolation (which is connected to the DAC portion of the RFDC block),
Vector Decimator (which is connected to the ADC portion of the RFDC block), and
Vector Decimator subsystem receives the packed eight samples as 128 bits. The
Vector Decimator subsystem decimates input vector samples by 8 and sends them to the
OFDM TxRx subsystem. The sample rate after the Vector Decimator block is 61.44 Msps, as expected by
OFDM TxRx subsystem for its processing.
OFDM TxRx subsystem contains the functionality to be implemented on the PL. This subsystem contains an OFDM Transmitter and an OFDM Receiver connected back-to-back. This model is equivalent to the Simulink model in the HDL OFDM MATLAB References (Wireless HDL Toolbox) example. Also, this model provides additional functionality to integrate it with the Zynq® hardware architecture.
OFDM Tx Channel OFDM Rx subsystem includes
Channel Control, and
Payload Data subsystems.
OFDM Txsubsystem is implemented from the HDL OFDM Transmitter (Wireless HDL Toolbox) example.
OFDM Rxsubsystem is implemented from the HDL OFDM Receiver (Wireless HDL Toolbox) example.
Channel Controlsubsystem has a
White Gaussian Noise Generatorsubsystem and an
Apply CFOsubsystem. The White Gaussian Noise Generator has an AWGN generator from the HDL Implementation of AWGN Generator (Wireless HDL Toolbox) example. The
Apply CFOsubsystem performs the CFO insertion using the NCO (DSP HDL Toolbox) block.
Select Payload Datasubsystem contains an LUT that stores the data bits used for transmitter waveform generation.
In the receive path, the
Vector Decimator subsystem receives the packed eight samples with a sample rate of 491.52 Msps from the RF Data Converter block. The
Vector Decimator subsystem decimates input vector samples by 8 and sends them to the OFDM receiver. The sample rate after the
Vector Decimator subsystem is 61.44 Msps, as expected by the
OFDM TxRx subsystem for its processing. The OFDM Receiver block sends the processed data to the processor with a sample time of 61.44 MHz. In the transmit path, the OFDM Transmitter block sends the samples to the RF Data Converter block through the
Vector Interpolation subsystem. The
Vector Interpolation subsystem interpolates the input samples by 8 (491.52 Msps) and sends them to the RF Data Converter block as a vector of eight samples.
Processor Logic Design
The processor logic contains a read task and a periodic task. The periodic task is a timer-driven task with a periodic time of 1e-2, which is defined in the task manager. The periodic task drives the control and status signals of the hardware algorithm through the AXI4-Lite registers. The model displays status information such as number of frames synchronized, estimated CFO, decoded header information (
codeRate), number of header and data CRC pass and failures, number of bits received, and number of bit errors from the OFDM receiver. The controller provides the constellation data and status information to the MATLAB host by using UDP blocks. The
StatusUDPData subsystems relay the constellation and status signals, respective to the host over the UDP protocol.
The read task is an event-based task driven by the arrival of data from the FPGA through DDR memory. This data comprises the constellation data of the selected modulation type. The previous two tasks are modeled under the
Processor Algorithm Wrapper subsystem in processor model
soc_OFDM_proc and are connected to the Task Manager block at the top level.
The processor sends the
OFDM Receiver subsystem outputs data and receiver status signals directly back to the host over the Ethernet link by using UDP Write blocks. The IP address of the UDP Write block in the processor model must be configured to the IP address of the host. This interface model, which runs on the host, shows how to receive data from the hardware platform and how to postprocess it.
To confirm its basic operation, run the hardware generation model using
dataBits stored in the
soc_OFDM_databits MAT file. The model callback initialization loads
dataBits to the workspace. To access the callback initialization, select MODELING > Model Settings > Model Properties > Callbacks > InitFcn.
Because the model contains a large number of HDL-optimized blocks, which simulates using sample-based signals it takes a while for the simulation. The figure shows the constellation diagram from the simulation.
To enable the AWGN channel between the OFDM Transmitter and OFDM Receiver, set enableInternalLoopback to
true. You can control the channel by using channel impairments insertCFO and snrdB input ports. When you set enableInternalLoopback to
false, the OFDM signals are transmitted and received externally through the ADC, DAC, and RF Data converter. The channel impairments are added externally in real time.
If you want to see the complete hardware and software simulation of the OFDM transit and receive algorithm and the controller dynamic configuration, run the
soc_OFDM_top model. Run the host model to see the receiver status signals and constellation diagram.
Implement and Run on Hardware
Connect the SMA connector on the XM500 Balun card to complete the loopback between the DAC and ADC, according to these connections: DAC229_T1_CH2 (J5) to ADC224_T0_CH0 (J4).
To implement the model on a supported SoC board, use the SoC Builder tool. Ensure that the Hardware Board option is set to
Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ RFSoC ZCU111 Evaluation Kit on the System on Chip tab of the Simulink toolstrip.
To open SoC Builder, click Configure, Build, & Deploy. After the SoC Builder tool opens, follow these steps.
On the Setup screen, select Build Model and click Next.
On the Select Build Action screen, select Build and load for external mode and then click Next.
On the Select Project Folder screen, specify the project folder and then click Next.
On the Review Memory Map screen, click View/Edit Memory Map to view the memory map and then click Next.
On the Validate Model screen, click Validate to check the compatibility of the model for implementation and then click Next.
On the Build Model screen, click Build to begin building the model. An external shell opens when FPGA synthesis begins. Click Next.
On the Connect Hardware screen, click Test Connection to test the connectivity of the host computer with the SoC board. Click Next to go to the Run Application screen.
FPGA synthesis often takes more than 30 minutes to complete. To save time, you can use the provided pre-generated bitstream by following these steps.
Close the external shell to terminate FPGA synthesis.
Copy the pre-generated bitstream to your project folder by entering this command at the MATLAB command prompt.
copyfile(fullfile(matlabshared.supportpkg.getSupportPackageRoot, ... 'toolbox','soc','supportpackages','xilinxsoc','xilinxsocexamples', ... 'bitstreams','soc_OFDM_top-XilinxZynqUltraScale_RFSoCZCU111EvaluationKit.bit'),'./soc_prj');
Click Load and Run to load the pre-generated bitstream and run the model on the SoC board. After the bit file is loaded, open the generated software model.
Run the model in external mode by clicking Monitor & Tune. You can control the configuration from the Simulink model.
Constellation and Status Signals from Hardware
Run the host model to see the received constellation data and receiver status signals. When the host interface model runs successfully, the model displays the constellation diagram and status signals.
This example demonstrated how to integrate the OFDM transmit and receive algorithms on a Xilinx ZCU111 evaluation board using an SoC Blockset implementation and how to verify the design in simulation and on hardware.
- AXI4-Stream to Software | Register Channel | Register Write | RF Data Converter | Stream Read | Task Manager | UDP Read (HOST) | UDP Write