Pricing Using Interest-Rate Term Structure
The instruments can be presented to the functions as a portfolio of different types of instruments or as groups of instruments of the same type. The current version of the toolbox can compute price and sensitivities for five instrument types of using interest-rate curves:
OAS for callable and puttable bonds
In addition to these instruments, the toolbox also supports the calculation of price and sensitivities of arbitrary sets of cash flows.
Options and interest-rate floors and caps are absent from the above list of supported instruments. These instruments are not supported because their pricing and sensitivity function require a stochastic model for the evolution of interest rates. The interest-rate term structure used for pricing is treated as deterministic, and as such is not adequate for pricing these instruments.
Financial Instruments Toolbox™ also contains functions that use the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) and Black-Derman-Toy (BDT) models to compute prices and sensitivities for financial instruments. These models support computations involving options and interest-rate floors and caps. See Pricing Using Interest-Rate Tree Models for information on computing price and sensitivities of financial instruments using the HJM and BDT models.
Computing Instrument Prices
The main function used for pricing portfolios of instruments is
intenvprice. This function works
with the family of functions that calculate the prices of individual types of
instruments. When called,
intenvprice classifies the
portfolio contained in
InstSet by instrument type, and calls the
appropriate pricing functions. The map between instrument types and the pricing
intenvprice calls is
Price a bond by a set of zero curves
Price a fixed-rate note by a set of zero curves
Price a floating-rate note by a set of zero curves
Price a swap by a set of zero curves
You can use each of these functions individually to price an instrument. Consult the reference pages for specific information on using these functions.
intenvprice takes as input an interest-rate term structure
intenvset, and a portfolio of
interest-rate contingent derivatives instruments created with
The syntax for using
intenvprice to price an entire
Price = intenvprice(RateSpec, InstSet)
RateSpecis the interest-rate term structure.
InstSetis the name of the portfolio.
Example: Pricing a Portfolio of Instruments
Consider this example of using the
intenvprice function to
price a portfolio of instruments supplied with Financial Instruments Toolbox software.
The provided MAT-file
deriv.mat stores a portfolio as an
instrument set variable
ZeroInstSet. The MAT-file also
contains the interest-rate term structure
can display the instruments with the function
load deriv.mat; instdisp(ZeroInstSet)
Index Type CouponRate Settle Maturity Period Basis... 1 Bond 0.04 01-Jan-2000 01-Jan-2003 1 NaN... 2 Bond 0.04 01-Jan-2000 01-Jan-2004 2 NaN... Index Type CouponRate Settle Maturity FixedReset Basis... 3 Fixed 0.04 01-Jan-2000 01-Jan-2003 1 NaN... Index Type Spread Settle Maturity FloatReset Basis... 4 Float 20 01-Jan-2000 01-Jan-2003 1 NaN... Index Type LegRate Settle Maturity LegReset Basis... 5 Swap [0.06 20] 01-Jan-2000 01-Jan-2003 [1 1] NaN...
intenvprice to calculate the
prices for the instruments contained in the portfolio
format bank Prices = intenvprice(ZeroRateSpec, ZeroInstSet)
Prices = 98.72 97.53 98.72 100.55 3.69
Prices is a vector containing the prices of all
the instruments in the portfolio in the order indicated by the
Index column displayed by
instdisp. So, the first two
Prices correspond to the first two bonds; the
third element corresponds to the fixed-rate note; the fourth to the
floating-rate note; and the fifth element corresponds to the price of the
Computing Instrument Sensitivities
In general, you can compute sensitivities either as dollar price changes or as percentage price changes. The toolbox reports all sensitivities as dollar sensitivities.
Using the interest-rate term structure, you can calculate two types of derivative price sensitivities, delta and gamma. Delta represents the dollar sensitivity of prices to shifts in the observed forward yield curve. Gamma represents the dollar sensitivity of delta to shifts in the observed forward yield curve.
intenvsens function computes
instrument sensitivities and instrument prices. If you need both the prices and
sensitivity measures, use
intenvsens. A separate call to
intenvprice is not
Here is the syntax
[Delta, Gamma, Price] = intenvsens(RateSpec, InstSet)
where, as before:
RateSpecis the interest-rate term structure.
InstSetis the name of the portfolio.
Example: Sensitivities and Prices
Here is an example that uses
intenvsens to calculate both
sensitivities and prices.
format bank load deriv.mat; [Delta, Gamma, Price] = intenvsens(ZeroRateSpec, ZeroInstSet);
Display the results in a single matrix in bank format.
All = [Delta Gamma Price]
All = -272.64 1029.84 98.72 -347.44 1622.65 97.53 -272.64 1029.84 98.72 -1.04 3.31 100.55 -282.04 1059.62 3.69
To view the per-dollar sensitivity, divide the first two columns by the last one.
[Delta./Price, Gamma./Price, Price]
ans = -2.76 10.43 98.72 -3.56 16.64 97.53 -2.76 10.43 98.72 -0.01 0.03 100.55 -76.39 286.98 3.69
OAS for Callable and Puttable Bonds
Option Adjusted Spread (OAS) is a useful way to value and compare securities with embedded options, like callable or puttable bonds. Basically, when the constant or flat spread is added to the interest-rate curve/rates in the tree, the pricing model value equals the market price. Financial Instruments Toolbox supports pricing American, European, and Bermuda callable and puttable bonds using different interest rate models. The pricing for a bond with embedded options is:
For a callable bond, where the holder has bought a bond and sold a call option to the issuer:
Price callable bond=
Price Option free bond − Price call option
For a puttable bond, where the holder has bought a bond and a put option:
Price puttable bond=
Price Option free bond + Price put option
There are two additional sensitivities related to OAS for bonds with embedded options: Option Adjusted Duration and Option Adjusted Convexity. These are similar to the concepts of modified duration and convexity for option-free bonds. The measure Duration is a general term that describes how sensitive a bond’s price is to a parallel shift in the yield curve. Modified Duration and Modified Convexity assume that the bond’s cash flows do not change when the yield curve shifts. This is not true for OA Duration or OA Convexity because the cash flows may change due to the option risk component of the bond.
Often bonds are issued with embedded options, which then makes standard price/yield or spread measures irrelevant. For example, a municipality concerned about the chance that interest rates may fall in the future might issue bonds with a provision that allows the bond to be repaid before the bond’s maturity. This is a call option on the bond and must be incorporated into the valuation of the bond. Option-adjusted spread (OAS), which adjusts a bond spread for the value of the option, is the standard measure for valuing bonds with embedded options. Financial Instruments Toolbox supports computing option-adjusted spreads for bonds with single embedded options using the agency model.
The Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) has a simplified approach to compute OAS for agency issues (Government Sponsored Entities like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) termed “Agency OAS.” In this approach, the bond has only one call date (European call) and uses Black’s model (see The BMA European Callable Securities Formula at https://www.sifma.org) to value the bond option. The price of the bond is computed as follows:
PriceCallable is the price of the
PriceNonCallable is the price of the
noncallable bond, that is, price of the bond using
PriceOption is the price of the option,
that is, price of the option using Black’s model.
The Agency OAS is the spread, when used in the previous formula, yields the market price. Financial Instruments Toolbox supports these functions:
Agency OAS Functions
Compute the OAS of the callable bond using the Agency OAS model.
Price the callable bond OAS using the Agency OAS model.
For more information on agency OAS, see Agency Option-Adjusted Spreads.