softmax

Apply softmax activation to channel dimension

Description

The softmax activation operation applies the softmax function to the channel dimension of the input data.

The softmax function normalizes the value of the input data across the channel dimension such that it sums to one. You can regard the output of the softmax function as a probability distribution.

Note

This function applies the softmax operation to dlarray data. If you want to apply softmax within a layerGraph object or Layer array, use the following layer:

example

dlY = softmax(dlX) computes the softmax activation of the input dlX by applying the softmax transfer function to the channel dimension of the input data. All values in dlY are between 0 and 1, and sum to 1. The input dlX must be a formatted dlarray. The output dlY is a formatted dlarray with the same dimension format as dlX.

dlY = softmax(dlX,'DataFormat',FMT) also specifies dimension format FMT when dlX is not a formatted dlarray. The output dlY is an unformatted dlarray with the same dimension order as dlX.

Examples

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Use the softmax function to set all values in the input data to values between 0 and 1 that sum to 1 over all channels.

Create the input classification data as two observations of random variables. The data can be in any of 10 categories.

numCategories = 10;
observations = 2;

X = rand(numCategories,observations);
dlX = dlarray(X,'CB');

Compute the softmax activation.

dlY = softmax(dlX);
totalProb = sum(dlY,1)
dlY =

10(C) x 2(B) dlarray

0.1151    0.0578
0.1261    0.1303
0.0579    0.1285
0.1270    0.0802
0.0959    0.1099
0.0562    0.0569
0.0673    0.0753
0.0880    0.1233
0.1328    0.1090
0.1337    0.1288
totalProb =

1(C) x 2(B) dlarray

1.0000    1.0000

All values in dlY range between 0 and 1. The values over all channels sum to 1 for each observation.

Input Arguments

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Input data, specified as a formatted dlarray or an unformatted dlarray. When dlX is not a formatted dlarray, you must specify the dimension label format using 'DataFormat',FMT.

dlX must contain a 'C' channel dimension.

Data Types: single | double

Dimension order of unformatted input data, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'DataFormat' and a character array or string FMT that provides a label for each dimension of the data. Each character in FMT must be one of the following:

• 'S' — Spatial

• 'C' — Channel

• 'B' — Batch (for example, samples and observations)

• 'T' — Time (for example, sequences)

• 'U' — Unspecified

You can specify multiple dimensions labeled 'S' or 'U'. You can use the labels 'C', 'B', and 'T' at most once.

You must specify 'DataFormat',FMT when the input data is not a formatted dlarray.

Example: 'DataFormat','SSCB'

Data Types: char | string

Output Arguments

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Softmax activations, returned as a dlarray. All values in dlY are between 0 and 1. The output dlY has the same underlying data type as the input dlX.

If the input data dlX is a formatted dlarray, dlY has the same dimension format as dlX. If the input data is not a formatted dlarray, dlY is an unformatted dlarray with the same dimension order as the input data.

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Softmax Activation

The softmax function normalizes the input across the channel dimension, such that it sums to one. For more information, see the definition of Softmax Layer on the softmaxLayer reference page.

Extended Capabilities

GPU Code GenerationGenerate CUDA® code for NVIDIA® GPUs using GPU Coder™.

Introduced in R2019b