Build a Conventional Vehicle Model
The conventional vehicle reference application represents a full vehicle model with an internal combustion engine, transmission, and associated powertrain control algorithms. Use the reference application for powertrain matching analysis and component selection, control and diagnostic algorithm design, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. To create and open a working copy of the conventional vehicle reference application project, enter
1.5–L spark-ignition (SI) dynamic engine
Performance mode transmission controller
This table describes the blocks and subsystems in the reference application, indicating which subsystems contain variants. To implement the model variants, the reference application uses variant subsystems.
|Reference Application Element||Description||Variants|
Analyze Power and Energy
Double-click Analyze Power and Energy to open a live script. Run the script to evaluate and report power and energy consumption at the component- and system-level. For more information about the live script, see Analyze Power and Energy.
Drive Cycle Source block — FTP75 (2474 seconds)
Generates a standard or user-specified drive cycle velocity versus time profile. Block output is the selected or specified vehicle longitudinal speed.
Creates environment variables, including road grade, wind velocity, and ambient temperature and pressure.
Uses the Longitudinal Driver or Open Loop variant to generate normalized acceleration and braking commands.
Implements a powertrain control module (PCM) containing a transmission control module (TCM) and engine control module (ECM).
Implements a passenger car that contains transmission drivetrain and engine plant model subsystems.
Displays vehicle-level performance, fuel economy, and emission results that are useful for powertrain matching and component selection analysis.
Optimize Transmission Shift Maps
You can use the conventional vehicle reference application to optimize the transmission control module (TCM) shift schedules. Use the optimized shift schedules to:
Design control algorithms.
Assess the impact of powertrain changes, such as an engine or gear ratio, on performance, fuel economy, and emissions.
TCM shift schedule optimization requires Simulink® Design Optimization™, the Global Optimization Toolbox, and Stateflow®. To increase the performance of the optimization, consider also using the Parallel Computing Toolbox™.
To run the TCM shift schedule optimization, open a version of the conventional vehicle reference application that includes the option to optimize transmission shift maps by using this command:
For more information, see Optimize Transmission Control Module Shift Schedules.
Evaluate and Report Power and Energy
Double-click Analyze Power and Energy to open a live script. Run the script to evaluate and report power and energy consumption at the component- and system-level.
The script provides:
An overall energy summary that you can export to an Excel® spreadsheet.
Engine plant and drivetrain efficiencies, including an engine plant histogram of time spent at the different engine efficiencies.
Data logging so that you can use the Simulation Data Inspector to analyze the powertrain efficiency and energy transfer signals.
For more information about the live script, see Analyze Power and Energy.
Drive Cycle Source
Drive Cycle Source block generates a target vehicle velocity for a
selected or specified drive cycle. The reference application has these options.
Output sample time
Continuous operator commands
Discrete operator commands
Longitudinal Driver subsystem generates normalized acceleration and
braking commands. The reference application has these variants.
Longitudinal Driver (default)
PI control with tracking windup and feed-forward gains that are a function of vehicle velocity.
Optimal single-point preview (look ahead) control.
Proportional-integral (PI) control with tracking windup and feed-forward gains.
Low-pass filter (LPF)
Use an LPF on target velocity error for smoother driving.
Do not use a filter on velocity error.
Stateflow chart models reverse, neutral, and drive gear shift scheduling.
Input gear, vehicle state, and velocity feedback generates acceleration and braking commands to track forward and reverse vehicle motion.
Stateflow chart models reverse, neutral, park, and N-speed gear shift scheduling.
Open-loop control subsystem. In the subsystem, you can configure the acceleration, deceleration, gear, and clutch commands with constant or signal-based inputs.
To idle the engine at the beginning of a drive cycle and simulate catalyst light-off before
moving the vehicle with a pedal command, use the Longitudinal Driver variant. The Longitudinal
Driver subsystem includes an ignition switch signal profile,
IgSw. The engine
controller uses the ignition switch signal to start both the engine and a catalyst light-off
The catalyst light-off timer overrides the engine stop-start (ESS) stop function control
while the catalyst light-off timer is counting up. During the simulation, after the
IgSw down-edge time reaches the catalyst light-off time
CatLightOffTime, normal ESS operation resumes. If there is no torque
command before the simulation reaches the
EngStopTime, the ESS shuts down the
To control ESS and catalyst light-off:
In the Longitudinal Driver Model subsystem, set the ignition switch profile
In the engine controller model workspace, set these calibration parameters:
EngStopStartEnable— Enables ESS. To disable ESS, set the value to false.
CatLightOffTime— Engine idle time from engine start to catalyst light-off.
EngStopTime— ESS engine run time after driver model torque request cut-off.
To implement a powertrain control module (PCM), the
subsystem has a transmission control module (TCM) and an engine control module (ECM).
The reference application has these variants.
|Engine controller — ECM|
SI engine controller
CI engine controller
|Transmission controller — TCM|
Performance mode transmission controller
Fuel economy mode transmission controller
To implement a passenger car, the
Passenger Car subsystem contains
drivetrain and engine plant model subsystems. To create your own internal combustion
engine variants for the reference application, use the CI and SI engine project
templates. The reference application has these variants.
Dual clutch transmission (DCT)
Configure drivetrain with DCT block or DCT system. For the DCT system, you can configure the type of filter.
Differential and Compliance
Configure drivetrain for all wheel, front wheel, or rear wheel drive. For the all wheel drive variant, you can configure the type of coupling torque.
Vehicle configured for 3 degrees of freedom.
Wheels and Brakes
Configure drivetrain for all wheel, front wheel, or rear wheel drive. For the wheels, you can configure the type of:
For performance and clarity, to determine the longitudinal force of each wheel, the variants implement the Longitudinal Wheel block. To determine the total longitudinal force of all wheels acting on the axle, the variants use a scale factor to multiply the force of one wheel by the number of wheels on the axle. By using this approach to calculate the total force, the variants assume equal tire slip and loading at the front and rear axles, which is common for longitudinal powertrain studies. If this is not the case, for example when friction or loads differ on the left and right sides of the axles, use unique Longitudinal Wheel blocks to calculate independent forces. However, using unique blocks to model each wheel increases model complexity and computational cost.
Dynamic SI Core Engine with turbocharger
Dynamic naturally aspirated SI Core Engine
Dynamic SI V Twin-Turbo Single-Intake Engine
Dynamic SI V Engine
Dynamic SI V Twin-Turbo Twin-Intake Engine
Mapped SI Engine with implicit turbocharger
Deep learning SI engine
Dynamic CI Core Engine with turbocharger
Mapped CI Engine with implicit turbocharger
- Conventional Vehicle Reference Application
- Conventional Vehicle Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel Economy and Emissions
- Conventional Vehicle Powertrain Efficiency
- Optimize Transmission Control Module Shift Schedules
- Track Drive Cycle Errors