How to generate network topology for several LoRa nodes as mesh network ?

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I'd like to create several LoRa nodes as mesh network.
How to generate or create mesh network topology for LoRa nodes ?
(Can I use traditional wireless topolgy e.g., waxman, waxtop or Is there specific network topolgy for LoRa nodes)
I'd like to generate the environment that consists of several LoRa nodes and LoRa Gateway but not necessary connect to The Internet.

Accepted Answer

recent works
recent works on 28 Oct 2023
Creating a mesh network for LoRa (Long Range) nodes can be a complex task as it depends on various factors like terrain, node placement, and communication range. LoRa technology itself doesn't dictate a specific network topology like traditional wireless mesh networks do. Instead, it provides a long-range, low-power communication technology for IoT applications.
Here are the general steps to create a LoRa mesh network:
LoRa Nodes and Gateways:
  • Deploy multiple LoRa nodes and one or more LoRa gateways within the coverage area. Each node can communicate with gateways in range. LoRa nodes are often battery-powered and transmit at low power, so they should be distributed accordingly.
Communication Range:
  • Understand the LoRa communication range. LoRa nodes communicate directly with gateways or through other nodes (mesh) if they are in range. The range depends on factors like frequency, spreading factor, and environmental conditions.
Topology Planning:
  • Plan the topology based on your specific requirements. The nodes can be organized in a star, tree, or mesh topology. Traditional wireless mesh network topologies like Waxman or WaxTop may not be directly applicable since LoRa is different from Wi-Fi or Zigbee. You need to design your own topology.
Data Routing:
  • If using a mesh topology, implement data routing algorithms to relay data from one node to another and eventually to a gateway. LoRaWAN, a common LoRa protocol, includes a network server that handles routing between nodes and gateways.
Frequency Planning:
  • Allocate different LoRa frequencies to avoid interference, especially if you have multiple gateways. LoRa operates in different frequency bands, such as 868 MHz in Europe and 915 MHz in the United States.
Testing and Optimization:
  • Deploy your network and test it in the actual environment. Optimize the placement of nodes to ensure coverage, and adjust transmission parameters if needed.
Network Management:
  • Implement network management and monitoring tools to keep track of your nodes and gateways. This might include tools for firmware updates, security management, and performance monitoring.
Security:
  • Implement security measures to protect the data transmitted over your LoRa network. LoRaWAN provides security features, including message integrity checks and end-to-end encryption.
Local Network:
  • You mentioned that your network doesn't necessarily need to connect to the internet. You can create a private, local LoRa network within your coverage area without internet connectivity. This simplifies the network architecture.
Remember that designing a LoRa mesh network involves a combination of radio frequency planning, network topology design, and communication protocol configuration. You can refer to LoRaWAN as a commonly used protocol for LoRa networks, which includes specifications for device registration, data rate adaptation, and data routing.

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