## Create a Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix

To create a GLCM, use the `graycomatrix` function. The function creates a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) by calculating how often a pixel with the intensity (gray-level) value i occurs in a specific spatial relationship to a pixel with the value j. By default, the spatial relationship is defined as the pixel of interest and the pixel to its immediate right (horizontally adjacent), but you can specify other spatial relationships between the two pixels. Each element (i, j) in the resultant GLCM is simply the sum of the number of times that the pixel with value i occurred in the specified spatial relationship to a pixel with value j in the input image.

The number of gray levels in the image determines the size of the GLCM. By default, `graycomatrix` uses scaling to reduce the number of intensity values in an image to eight, but you can use the `NumLevels` and the `GrayLimits` parameters to control this scaling of gray levels.

The gray-level co-occurrence matrix can reveal certain properties about the spatial distribution of the gray levels in the texture image. For example, if most of the entries in the GLCM are concentrated along the diagonal, the texture is coarse with respect to the specified offset. You can also derive several statistical measures from the GLCM. See Derive Statistics from GLCM and Plot Correlation for more information.

To illustrate, the following figure shows how `graycomatrix` calculates the first three values in a GLCM. In the output GLCM, element (1, 1) contains the value `1` because there is only one instance in the input image where two horizontally adjacent pixels have the values `1` and `1`, respectively. Element (1, 2) contains the value `2` because there are two instances where two horizontally adjacent pixels have the values `1` and `2`. Element (1, 3) has the value 0 because there are no instances of two horizontally adjacent pixels with the values 1 and 3. `graycomatrix` continues processing the input image, scanning the image for other pixel pairs (i, j) and recording the sums in the corresponding elements of the GLCM.

Process Used to Create the GLCM 