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MACROECONOMICS © 2010 Worth Publishers, all rights reserved S E V E N T H E D I T I O N PowerPoint ® Slides by Ron Cronovich N. Gregory Mankiw C H A P T E R Money and Inflation 4 Modified for EC 204 by Bob Murphy

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In this chapter, you will learn: The classical theory of inflation causes effects social costs “Classical” – assumes prices are flexible & markets clear Applies to the long run

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Inflation and its trend, 1960-2009 -3% 0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% 19601965197019751980198519901995200020052010 long-run trend % change in CPI from 12 months earlier

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4 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The connection between money and prices Inflation rate = the percentage increase in the average level of prices. Price = amount of money required to buy a good. Because prices are defined in terms of money, we need to consider the nature of money, the supply of money, and how it is controlled.

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5 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money: Definition Money is the stock of assets that can be readily used to make transactions.

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6 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money: Functions medium of exchange we use it to buy stuff store of value transfers purchasing power from the present to the future unit of account the common unit by which everyone measures prices and values

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7 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money: Types 1. Fiat money has no intrinsic value example: the paper currency we use 2. Commodity money has intrinsic value examples: gold coins, cigarettes in P.O.W. camps

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NOW YOU TRY: Discussion Question Which of these are money? a. Currency b. Checks c. Deposits in checking accounts (“demand deposits”) d. Credit cards e. Certificates of deposit (“time deposits”)

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9 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The money supply and monetary policy definitions The money supply is the quantity of money available in the economy. Monetary policy is the control over the money supply.

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10 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The central bank Monetary policy is conducted by a country’s central bank. In the U.S., the central bank is called the Federal Reserve (“the Fed”). The Federal Reserve Building Washington, DC

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11 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money supply measures, May 2009 $8328 M1 + small time deposits, savings deposits, money market mutual funds, money market deposit accounts M2 $1596 C + demand deposits, travelers’ checks, other checkable deposits M1 $850CurrencyC amount ($ billions) assets includedsymbol

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12 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The Quantity Theory of Money A simple theory linking the inflation rate to the growth rate of the money supply. Begins with the concept of velocity…

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13 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Velocity basic concept: the rate at which money circulates definition: the number of times the average dollar bill changes hands in a given time period example: In 2009, $500 billion in transactions money supply = $100 billion The average dollar is used in five transactions in 2009 So, velocity = 5

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14 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Velocity, cont. This suggests the following definition: where V = velocity T = value of all transactions M = money supply

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15 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Velocity, cont. Use nominal GDP as a proxy for total transactions. Then, where P = price of output (GDP deflator) Y = quantity of output (real GDP) P Y = value of output (nominal GDP)

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16 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The quantity equation The quantity equation M V = P Y follows from the preceding definition of velocity. It is an identity: it holds by definition of the variables.

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17 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money demand and the quantity equation M/P = real money balances, the purchasing power of the money supply. A simple money demand function: (M/P ) d = k Y where k = how much money people wish to hold for each dollar of income. (k is exogenous)

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18 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money demand and the quantity equation money demand: (M/P ) d = k Y quantity equation: M V = P Y The connection between them: k = 1/V When people hold lots of money relative to their incomes (k is large), money changes hands infrequently (V is small).

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19 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Back to the quantity theory of money starts with quantity equation assumes V is constant & exogenous: Then, quantity equation becomes:

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20 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The quantity theory of money, cont. How the price level is determined: With V constant, the money supply determines nominal GDP (P Y ). Real GDP is determined by the economy’s supplies of K and L and the production function (Chap 3). The price level is P = (nominal GDP)/(real GDP).

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21 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The quantity theory of money, cont. Recall from Chapter 2: The growth rate of a product equals the sum of the growth rates. The quantity equation in growth rates:

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22 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The quantity theory of money, cont. (Greek letter “pi”) denotes the inflation rate: The result from the preceding slide: Solve this result for :

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23 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The quantity theory of money, cont. Normal economic growth requires a certain amount of money supply growth to facilitate the growth in transactions. Money growth in excess of this amount leads to inflation.

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24 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The quantity theory of money, cont. ΔY/Y depends on growth in the factors of production and on technological progress (all of which we take as given, for now). Hence, the Quantity Theory predicts a one-for-one relation between changes in the money growth rate and changes in the inflation rate.

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25 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Confronting the quantity theory with data The quantity theory of money implies: 1. Countries with higher money growth rates should have higher inflation rates. 2. The long-run trend behavior of a country’s inflation should be similar to the long-run trend in the country’s money growth rate. Are the data consistent with these implications?

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International data on inflation and money growth Money supply growth (percent, logarithmic scale) Singapore Ecuador Turkey Belarus Argentina Indonesia

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U.S. inflation and money growth, 1960-2009 -3% 0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% 19601965197019751980198519901995200020052010 inflation rate M2 growth rate Over the long run, the rates of inflation and money growth move together, as the Quantity Theory predicts.

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28 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Seigniorage To spend more without raising taxes or selling bonds, the govt can print money. The “revenue” raised from printing money is called seigniorage (pronounced SEEN-your-idge). The inflation tax: Printing money to raise revenue causes inflation. Inflation is like a tax on people who hold money.

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29 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Inflation and interest rates Nominal interest rate, i not adjusted for inflation Real interest rate, r adjusted for inflation: r = i −

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30 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The Fisher effect The Fisher equation: i = r + Chap 3: S = I determines r. Hence, an increase in causes an equal increase in i. This one-for-one relationship is called the Fisher effect.

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U.S. inflation and nominal interest rates, 1960-2009 inflation rate nominal interest rate

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Inflation and nominal interest rates across countries Nominal interest rate (percent, logarithmic scale) Inflation rate (percent, logarithmic scale) Zimbabwe Romania Turkey Brazil Israel U.S. Germany Ethiopia Kenya Georgia

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NOW YOU TRY: Applying the theory Suppose V is constant, M is growing 5% per year, Y is growing 2% per year, and r = 4. a.Solve for i. b.If the Fed increases the money growth rate by 2 percentage points per year, find Δi. c.Suppose the growth rate of Y falls to 1% per year. What will happen to ? What must the Fed do if it wishes to keep constant?

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NOW YOU TRY: Answers a.First, find = 5 − 2 = 3. Then, find i = r + = 4 + 3 = 7. b. Δi = 2, same as the increase in the money growth rate. c.If the Fed does nothing, Δ = 1. To prevent inflation from rising, Fed must reduce the money growth rate by 1 percentage point per year. V is constant, M grows 5% per year, Y grows 2% per year, r = 4.

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35 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Two real interest rates Notation: = actual inflation rate (not known until after it has occurred) E = expected inflation rate Two real interest rates: i – E = ex ante real interest rate: the real interest rate people expect at the time they buy a bond or take out a loan i – = ex post real interest rate: the real interest rate actually realized

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36 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Money demand and the nominal interest rate In the quantity theory of money, the demand for real money balances depends only on real income Y. Another determinant of money demand: the nominal interest rate, i. the opportunity cost of holding money (instead of bonds or other interest-earning assets). Hence, ↑i ↓ in money demand.

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37 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The money demand function (M/P ) d = real money demand, depends negatively on i i is the opp. cost of holding money positively on Y higher Y more spending so, need more money (“L” is used for the money demand function because money is the most liquid asset.)

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38 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The money demand function When people are deciding whether to hold money or bonds, they don’t know what inflation will turn out to be. Hence, the nominal interest rate relevant for money demand is r + E .

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39 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Equilibrium The supply of real money balances Real money demand

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40 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation What determines what variablehow determined (in the long run) Mexogenous (the Fed) radjusts to ensure S = I Y P adjusts to ensure

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41 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation How P responds to Δ M For given values of r, Y, and E , a change in M causes P to change by the same percentage – just like in the quantity theory of money.

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42 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation What about expected inflation? Over the long run, people don’t consistently over- or under-forecast inflation, so E = on average. In the short run, E may change when people get new information. EX: Fed announces it will increase M next year. People will expect next year’s P to be higher, so E rises. This affects P now, even though M hasn’t changed yet….

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43 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation How P responds to Δ E For given values of r, Y, and M,

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NOW YOU TRY: Discussion Question Why is inflation bad? What costs does inflation impose on society? List all the ones you can think of. Focus on the long run. Think like an economist.

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45 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation A common misperception Common misperception: inflation reduces real wages This is true only in the short run, when nominal wages are fixed by contracts. (Chap. 3) In the long run, the real wage is determined by labor supply and the marginal product of labor, not the price level or inflation rate. Consider the data…

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The CPI and Average Hourly Earnings, 1965-2009 1965 = 100 Hourly wage in May 2009 dollars $0 $5 $10 $15 $20 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1965197019751980198519901995200020052010 CPI (1965 = 100) Nominal average hourly earnings, (1965 = 100) Real average hourly earnings in 2009 dollars, right scale

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47 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The classical view of inflation The classical view: A change in the price level is merely a change in the units of measurement. Then, why is inflation a social problem?

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48 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The social costs of inflation …fall into two categories: 1. costs when inflation is expected 2. costs when inflation is different than people had expected

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49 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The costs of expected inflation: 1. Shoeleather cost def: the costs and inconveniences of reducing money balances to avoid the inflation tax. ↑ ↑ i ↓ real money balances Remember: In long run, inflation does not affect real income or real spending. So, same monthly spending but lower average money holdings means more frequent trips to the bank to withdraw smaller amounts of cash.

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50 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The costs of expected inflation: 2. Menu costs def: The costs of changing prices. Examples: cost of printing new menus cost of printing & mailing new catalogs The higher is inflation, the more frequently firms must change their prices and incur these costs.

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51 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The costs of expected inflation: 3. Relative price distortions Firms facing menu costs change prices infrequently. Example: A firm issues new catalog each January. As the general price level rises throughout the year, the firm’s relative price will fall. Different firms change their prices at different times, leading to relative price distortions… …causing microeconomic inefficiencies in the allocation of resources.

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52 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The costs of expected inflation: 4. Unfair tax treatment Some taxes are not adjusted to account for inflation, such as the capital gains tax. Example: Jan 1: you buy $10,000 worth of IBM stock Dec 31: you sell the stock for $11,000, so your nominal capital gain is $1000 (10%). Suppose = 10% during the year. Your real capital gain is $0. But the govt requires you to pay taxes on your $1000 nominal gain!!

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53 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The costs of expected inflation: 5. General inconvenience Inflation makes it harder to compare nominal values from different time periods. This complicates long-range financial planning.

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54 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Additional cost of unexpected inflation: Arbitrary redistribution of purchasing power Many long-term contracts not indexed, but based on E . If turns out different from E , then some gain at others’ expense. Example: borrowers & lenders If > E , then (i − ) < (i − E ) and purchasing power is transferred from lenders to borrowers. If < E , then purchasing power is transferred from borrowers to lenders.

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55 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Additional cost of high inflation: Increased uncertainty When inflation is high, it’s more variable and unpredictable: turns out different from E more often, and the differences tend to be larger (though not systematically positive or negative) Arbitrary redistributions of wealth become more likely. This creates higher uncertainty, making risk averse people worse off.

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56 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation One benefit of inflation Nominal wages are rarely reduced, even when the equilibrium real wage falls. This hinders labor market clearing. Inflation allows the real wages to reach equilibrium levels without nominal wage cuts. Therefore, moderate inflation improves the functioning of labor markets.

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57 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Hyperinflation Common definition: 50% per month All the costs of moderate inflation described above become HUGE under hyperinflation. Money ceases to function as a store of value, and may not serve its other functions (unit of account, medium of exchange). People may conduct transactions with barter or a stable foreign currency.

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58 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation What causes hyperinflation? Hyperinflation is caused by excessive money supply growth: When the central bank prints money, the price level rises. If it prints money rapidly enough, the result is hyperinflation.

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A few examples of hyperinflation countryperiod CPI Inflation % per year M2 Growth % per year Israel1983-85338%305% Brazil1987-941256%1451% Bolivia1983-861818%1727% Ukraine1992-942089%1029% Argentina1988-902671%1583% Dem. Republic of Congo / Zaire 1990-963039%2373% Angola1995-964145%4106% Peru1988-905050%3517% Zimbabwe2005-075316%9914%

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60 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation Why governments create hyperinflation When a government cannot raise taxes or sell bonds, it must finance spending increases by printing money. In theory, the solution to hyperinflation is simple: stop printing money. In the real world, this requires drastic and painful fiscal restraint.

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61 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The Classical Dichotomy Real variables: Measured in physical units – quantities and relative prices, for example: quantity of output produced real wage: output earned per hour of work real interest rate: output earned in the future by lending one unit of output today Nominal variables: Measured in money units, e.g., nominal wage: Dollars per hour of work. nominal interest rate: Dollars earned in future by lending one dollar today. the price level: The amount of dollars needed to buy a representative basket of goods.

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62 CHAPTER 4 Money and Inflation The Classical Dichotomy Note: Real variables were explained in Chap 3, nominal ones in Chapter 4. Classical dichotomy: the theoretical separation of real and nominal variables in the classical model, which implies nominal variables do not affect real variables. Neutrality of money: Changes in the money supply do not affect real variables. In the real world, money is approximately neutral in the long run.

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Chapter Summary Money def: the stock of assets used for transactions functions: medium of exchange, store of value, unit of account types: commodity money (has intrinsic value), fiat money (no intrinsic value) money supply controlled by central bank Quantity theory of money assumes velocity is stable, concludes that the money growth rate determines the inflation rate.

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Chapter Summary Nominal interest rate equals real interest rate + inflation rate the opp. cost of holding money Fisher effect: Nominal interest rate moves one-for-one w/ expected inflation. Money demand depends only on income in the Quantity Theory also depends on the nominal interest rate if so, then changes in expected inflation affect the current price level.

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Chapter Summary Costs of inflation Expected inflation shoeleather costs, menu costs, tax & relative price distortions, inconvenience of correcting figures for inflation Unexpected inflation all of the above plus arbitrary redistributions of wealth between debtors and creditors

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Chapter Summary Hyperinflation caused by rapid money supply growth when money printed to finance govt budget deficits stopping it requires fiscal reforms to eliminate govt’s need for printing money

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Chapter Summary Classical dichotomy In classical theory, money is neutral--does not affect real variables. So, we can study how real variables are determined w/o reference to nominal ones. Then, money market eq’m determines price level and all nominal variables. Most economists believe the economy works this way in the long run.

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