Vertical coverage diagram
calculates the vertical coverage pattern of a narrowband radar antenna. The
Vertical Coverage Pattern is the radar’s
vcp, as a function of elevation angle,
vcpangles. The vertical coverage pattern depends upon
three parameters. These parameters are the radar’s maximum free-space detection
rfs, the radar frequency,
and the antenna height,
radarvcd(___) displays the vertical coverage
diagram for a radar system. The plot is the locus of points of maximum radar
range as a function of target elevation. This plot is also known as the
Blake chart. To create this chart,
radarvcd invokes the function
blakechart using default
parameters. To produce a Blake chart with different parameters, first call
radarvcd to obtain
vcpangles. Then, call
with user-specified parameters. This syntax can use any of the input arguments
in the previous syntaxes.
Set the frequency to 100 MHz, the antenna height to 10 m, and the free-space range to 200 km. The antenna pattern, surface roughness, antenna tilt angle, and field polarization assume their default values as specified in the
Obtain an array of vertical coverage pattern values and angles.
freq = 100e6; ant_height = 10; rng_fs = 200; [vcp,vcpangles] = radarvcd(freq,rng_fs,ant_height);
To see the vertical coverage pattern, omit the output arguments.
freq = 100e6; ant_height = 10; rng_fs = 200; radarvcd(freq,rng_fs,ant_height);
Set the frequency to 100 MHz, the antenna height to 10 m, and the free-space range to 200 km. The antenna pattern is a sinc function with 45° half-power width. The surface roughness is set to 1 m. The antenna tilt angle is set to 0°, and the field polarization is horizontal.
pat_angles = linspace(-90,90,361)'; pat_u = 1.39157/sind(45/2)*sind(pat_angles); pat = sinc(pat_u/pi); freq = 100e6; ant_height = 10; rng_fs = 200; tilt_ang = 0; [vcp,vcpangles] = radarvcd(freq,rng_fs,ant_height,... 'RangeUnit','km','HeightUnit','m',... 'AntennaPattern',pat,... 'PatternAngles',pat_angles,... 'TiltAngle',tilt_ang,'SurfaceRoughness',1);
Plot the range-height-angle curve (Blake chart) for a radar with a user-specified antenna pattern.
Define a sinc-function antenna pattern with a half-power beamwidth of 90 degrees.
pat_angles = linspace(-90,90,361)'; pat_u = 1.39157/sind(90/2)*sind(pat_angles); pat = sinc(pat_u/pi);
Specify a radar that transmits at 100 MHz. The free-space range is 200 km, the antenna height is 10 meters, the antenna tilt angle is zero degrees, and the surface roughness is one meter.
freq = 100e6; ant_height = 10; rng_fs = 200; tilt_ang = 0; surf_roughness = 1;
Create the radar range-height-angle plot.
radarvcd(freq,rng_fs,ant_height,... 'RangeUnit','km','HeightUnit','m',... 'AntennaPattern',pat,... 'PatternAngles',pat_angles,... 'TiltAngle',tilt_ang,... 'SurfaceRoughness',surf_roughness);
freq— Radar frequency
Radar frequency specified as a real-valued scalar less than 10 GHz (10e9).
rfs— Free-space range
Free-space range specified as a real-valued scalar. Range units are set by
RangeUnit Name-Value pair.
anht— Radar antenna height
Radar antenna height specified as a real-valued scalar. Height units are
set by the
HeightUnit Name-Value pair.
comma-separated pairs of
the argument name and
Value is the corresponding value.
Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value
pair arguments in any order as
'RangeUnit'— Radar range units
'HeightUnit'— Antenna height units
Antenna height units denoting meters, nautical miles, miles,
kilometers, or feet. This name-value pair specifies the units for the
anht, and the
'SurfaceRoughness' name-value pair.
'Polarization'— Transmitted wave polarization
Transmitted wave polarization specified as
horizontal polarization and
'V' for vertical
'SurfaceDielectric'— Dielectric constant of reflecting surface
Dielectric constant of reflecting surface specified as complex-valued scalar. When omitted, the dielectric constant is taken from a frequency-dependent seawater dielectric model derived in Blake.
'SurfaceRoughness'— Surface roughness
Surface roughness specified as a non-negative real scalar. Surface
roughness is a measure of the height variation of the reflecting
surface. The roughness is modeled as a sinusoid wave with
crest-to-trough height given by this value. A value of 0 indicates a
smooth surface. The units for surface roughness height is specified by
the value of the
'HeightUnit' Name-Value pair.
'AntennaPattern'— Antenna elevation pattern
Antenna elevation pattern, specified as a real-valued
N-by-1 column vector. Values for
'AntennaPattern' must be specified together with
'PatternAngles'— Antenna pattern elevation angles
Antenna pattern elevation angles specified as a real-valued
N-by-1 column vector. The size of the vector
'PatternAngles' must be the same as that
'AntennaPattern'. Angle units are
expressed in degrees and must lie between –90° and 90°. In
general, to properly compute the coverage, the antenna pattern should
fill the whole range from –90° to 90°.
'TiltAngle'— Antenna tilt angle
Antenna tilt angle specified as a real-valued scalar. The tilt angle is the elevation angle of the antenna with respect to the surface. Angle units are expressed in degrees.
'MaxElevation'— Maximum elevation angle
Maximum elevation angle, specified as a real-valued scalar. The maximum elevation angle is the largest angle for which the vertical coverage pattern is calculated. Angle units are expressed in degrees.
vcp— Vertical coverage pattern
Vertical coverage pattern returned as a real-valued,
K-by-1 column vector. The vertical coverage pattern is
the actual maximum range of the radar. Each entry of the vertical coverage
pattern corresponds to one of the angles returned in
vcpangles— Vertical coverage pattern angles
Vertical coverage pattern angles returned as a K-by-1 column vector. The angles range from –90° to 90°.
The maximum detection range of a radar antenna can differ, depending on placement. Suppose you place a radar antenna near a reflecting surface, such as the earth's land or sea surface and computed maximum detection range. If you then move the same radar antenna to free space far from any boundaries, a different maximum detection range would result. This is an effect of multi-path interference that occurs when waves, reflected from the surface, constructively add to or nullify the direct path signal from the radar to a target. Multipath interference gives rise to a series of lobes in the vertical plane. The vertical coverage pattern is the plot of the actual maximum detection range of the radar versus target elevation and depends upon the maximum free-space detection range and target elevation angle. See Blake .
 Blake, L.V. Machine Plotting of Radar Vertical-Plane Coverage Diagrams. Naval Research Laboratory Report 7098, 1970.
Usage notes and limitations:
Does not support variable-size inputs.
Supported only when output arguments are specified.