This example shows how to use the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) positioning approach in conjunction with the Release 9 Positioning Reference Signal (PRS) to calculate the position of a User Equipment (UE) within a network of eNodeBs using the LTE Toolbox™.

In this example, a number of eNodeB transmissions are created and combined with different delays and received powers to model the reception of all the eNodeB waveforms by one UE. The UE performs correlation with the Positioning Reference Signal (PRS) to establish the delay from each eNodeB and subsequently the delay difference between all pairs of eNodeBs. These delay differences are used to compute hyperbolas of constant delay difference, which are plotted relative to known eNodeB positions and intersect at the position of the UE.

A set (cell array) of eNodeB configurations `enb`

is created, with the number of eNodeBs specified by `NeNodeB`

. The configurations are derived from Reference Measurement Channel (RMC) R.5 using lteRMCDL. R.5 describes a 3 MHz bandwidth Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) transmission using 64-QAM modulation. For each eNodeB the configuration is updated to make the cell identity `NCellID`

unique and the PRS parameters `NPRSRB`

, `IPRS`

and `PRSPeriod`

are set.

A random position given by an X and Y coordinate for each eNodeB is generated by hPositioningPosition.m.

rng('default'); % Initialize the random number generator stream NeNodeB = 5; % Number of eNodeB % Create eNodeB configurations enb = cell(1,NeNodeB); for i=1:NeNodeB enb{i}=lteRMCDL('R.5'); % Get configuration based on RMC enb{i}.NCellID = mod((i-1)*2,504); % Set arbitrary cell identity enb{i}.TotSubframes = 1; % Number of subframes to generate enb{i}.NPRSRB = 2; % Bandwidth of PRS in resource blocks enb{i}.IPRS = 0; % PRS configuration index enb{i}.PRSPeriod = 'On'; % PRS present in all subframes enb{i}.Position = hPositioningPosition(i-1, NeNodeB); % eNodeB position end % Use the first eNodeB configuration for general settings info = lteOFDMInfo(enb{1});

The positions of the eNodeBs and the UE are plotted for reference. The UE lies at (0,0) and the eNodeBs are distributed around the UE.

hPositioningPlotPositions(enb);

For each eNodeB, a transmission is made consisting of the PRS, Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS), Secondary Synchronisation Signal (SSS) and Cell-specific Reference Signal (Cell RS). An empty resource grid is created and a PRS is generated and mapped onto the grid using ltePRS and ltePRSIndices. The PSS, SSS and Cell RS are added in a similar fashion. The resultant grid is OFDM modulated to produce a transmit waveform.

tx = cell(1,NeNodeB); for i = 1:NeNodeB grid = []; for nsf = 0:19 enb{i}.NSubframe = mod(nsf,10); sfgrid = lteDLResourceGrid(enb{i}); % Empty subframe sfgrid(ltePRSIndices(enb{i})) = ltePRS(enb{i}); % PRS REs sfgrid(ltePSSIndices(enb{i})) = ltePSS(enb{i}); % PSS REs sfgrid(lteSSSIndices(enb{i})) = lteSSS(enb{i}); % SSS REs sfgrid(lteCellRSIndices(enb{i})) = lteCellRS(enb{i}); % Cell RS REs grid = [grid sfgrid]; %#ok<AGROW> end enb{i}.NSubframe = 0; tx{i} = lteOFDMModulate(enb{i}, grid); % OFDM modulate end

Using the known eNodeB positions, the time delay from each eNodeB to the UE is calculated using the distance between the UE and eNodeB, `radius`

, and the speed of propagation (speed of light). Using knowledge of the sampling rate, `info.SamplingRate`

, the sample delay is calculated and stored in `sampleDelay`

. These variables will be used to model the environment between the eNodeBs and the UE but the information will NOT be provided to the UE.

speedOfLight = 299792458.0; % Speed of light in m/s sampleDelay = zeros(1, NeNodeB); radius = cell(1, NeNodeB); for i = 1:NeNodeB [~, radius{i}] = cart2pol(enb{i}.Position(1), enb{i}.Position(2)); delay = radius{i}/speedOfLight; % Delay in seconds sampleDelay(i) = round(delay*info.SamplingRate); % Delay in samples end

The received signal at the UE is modeled by delaying each eNodeB transmission according to the values in `sampleDelay`

, and attenuating the received signal from each eNodeB using the values in `radius`

in conjunction with an implementation of the TR 36.814 [ 1 ] Urban Macro Line Of Sight (LOS) path loss model. The received waveform from each eNodeB is padded with zeros to ensure all waveforms are the same length.

sumrx = zeros(length(tx{1})+max(sampleDelay), 1); rx = cell(1, NeNodeB); for i = 1:NeNodeB % Urban Macro LOS path loss per TR36.814 PLdB = hPositioningPathLoss(radius{i}, 2.1e9); PL = 10^(PLdB/10); % Add delay, pad and attenuate rx{i} = [zeros(sampleDelay(i), 1); tx{i}; ... zeros(max(sampleDelay)-sampleDelay(i), 1)]/ sqrt(PL); % Sum waveforms from all eNodeBs sumrx = sumrx + rx{i}; end % Plot received waveforms hPositioningPlotRx(enb, rx, info.SamplingRate);

Multi-cell search is performed in order to identify the cell identity of each eNodeB. An array of configurations `rxcfg`

for the eNodeBs is then created based on the detected cell identities and assuming that the PRS configuration has been given by higher-layer signaling and is therefore known to the UE. A number of other physical layer parameters such as the cyclic prefix length and duplex mode are assumed to be known and are assumed to be equal for each eNodeB. See the Cell Search, MIB and SIB1 Recovery example for more information on detecting these parameters.

% Assumed parameters for cell search searchcfg.CyclicPrefix = enb{1}.CyclicPrefix; searchcfg.DuplexMode = enb{1}.DuplexMode; searchcfg.NDLRB = enb{1}.NDLRB; % Perform multi-cell search searchalg.MaxCellCount = NeNodeB; searchalg.SSSDetection = 'PostFFT'; [cellIDs,offsets] = lteCellSearch(searchcfg,sumrx,searchalg); % Set up configurations for each detected cell; cells are considered as % detected here if they meet a minimum RSRQ threshold Qqualmin Qqualmin = -20; RSRQdB = zeros(1,searchalg.MaxCellCount); rxcfg = cell(1,searchalg.MaxCellCount); for i = 1:searchalg.MaxCellCount % Assumed parameters rxcfg{i} = enb{1}; % Use cell identity that was detected rxcfg{i}.NCellID = cellIDs(i); % Measure RSRQ rxgrid = lteOFDMDemodulate(rxcfg{i},sumrx(1+offsets(i):end,:)); meas = hRSMeasurements(rxcfg{i},rxgrid); RSRQdB(i) = meas.RSRQdB; end rxcfg(RSRQdB<Qqualmin) = []; Ndetected = numel(rxcfg);

The arrival times of the signals from each eNodeB are established at the UE by correlating the incoming signal with a local PRS generated with the cell identity of each eNodeB. Note that the absolute arrival times cannot be used at the UE to calculate its position as it has no knowledge of how far away the eNodeBs are, only the difference in distances given by the difference in arrival times. Therefore, the peak correlation for each eNodeB is used as a delay estimate to allow comparison.

ref = cell(1, Ndetected); corr = cell(1, Ndetected); delayEst = zeros(1, Ndetected); for i = 1:Ndetected % Generate reference PRS sfgrid = lteDLResourceGrid(rxcfg{i}); sfgrid(ltePRSIndices(rxcfg{i})) = ltePRS(rxcfg{i}); ref{i} = lteOFDMModulate(rxcfg{i},sfgrid); % Correlate received signal with each reference PRS c = abs(xcorr(sumrx,ref{i})); % Reduced length of correlation vector for positioning and plotting c(1:length(sumrx)) = []; % Remove meaningless result at beginning corr{i} = c(1:info.Nfft); % Extract an OFDM symbol's worth of data % Delay estimate is at point of maximum correlation delayEst(i) = find(corr{i}==max(corr{i})); end % Plot correlation if (Ndetected>0) hPositioningPlotCorr(rxcfg, corr, info.SamplingRate); end

Using the arrival times, the time differences of arrival between each pair of eNodeBs is calculated using hPositioningTDOA.m. The particular time difference of arrival between a pair of eNodeBs can result from the UE being located at any position where two circles, each centered on an eNodeB, intersect. The two circles have radii which differ by the distance covered at the speed of light in the given time difference. The complete set of possible UE positions across all possible radii for one circle (with the other circle maintaining a radius appropriate to the time difference as already described) forms a hyperbola. The "hyperbolas of constant delay difference" for all the different pairs of eNodeBs are plotted relative to the known eNodeB positions and intersect at the position of the UE.

% Estimate time difference of arrival from each eNodeB tdoa = hPositioningTDOA(delayEst,info.SamplingRate); % Plot hyperbolas figure(1); legendstr = feval(@(x)x.String,legend); enbs = [enb{:}]; txCellIDs = [enbs.NCellID]; for j = 1:Ndetected for i = (j+1):Ndetected dd = tdoa(i,j)*speedOfLight; % Delay distance % establish the eNodeBs for which the delay distance % is applicable by examining the detected cell identities txi = find(txCellIDs==rxcfg{i}.NCellID); txj = find(txCellIDs==rxcfg{j}.NCellID); if (~isempty(txi) && ~isempty(txj)) % plot TDOA curve [x, y] = hPositioningTDOACurve(enb{txi}.Position, ... enb{txj}.Position, dd); plot(x, y, 'k:', 'LineWidth', 2); end end end legend(legendstr);

This example uses the helper functions:

3GPP TR 36.814 "Further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer aspects"