## Lookup Table Operations

### Creating a Lookup Table

Certain binary image operations can be implemented most easily through lookup
tables. A lookup table is a column vector in which each element represents the value
to return for one possible combination of pixels in a neighborhood. To create lookup
tables for various operations, use the `makelut`

function.
`makelut`

creates lookup tables for 2-by-2 and 3-by-3
neighborhoods. The following figure illustrates these types of neighborhoods. Each
neighborhood pixel is indicated by an x, and the center pixel is the one with a
circle.

For a 2-by-2 neighborhood, there are 16 possible permutations of the pixels in the neighborhood. Therefore, the lookup table for this operation is a 16-element vector. For a 3-by-3 neighborhood, there are 512 permutations, so the lookup table is a 512-element vector.

**Note**

`makelut`

and `applylut`

support only 2-by-2
and 3-by-3 neighborhoods. Lookup tables larger than 3-by-3 neighborhoods are not
practical. For example, a lookup table for a 4-by-4 neighborhood would have
65,536 entries.

### Using a Lookup Table

Once you create a lookup table, you can use it to perform the desired operation by
using the `applylut`

function.

The example below illustrates using lookup table operations to modify an image
containing text. The example creates an anonymous function that returns 1 if three
or more pixels in the 3-by-3 neighborhood are 1; otherwise, it returns
`0`

. The example then calls `makelut`

, passing
in this function as the first argument, and using the second argument to specify a
3-by-3 lookup table.

f = @(x) sum(x(:)) >= 3; lut = makelut(f,3);

`lut`

is returned as a 512-element vector of 1's and 0's. Each
value is the output from the function for one of the 512 possible
permutations.

You then perform the operation using `applylut`

.

```
BW1 = imread("text.png");
BW2 = applylut(BW1,lut);
figure
montage({BW1,BW2})
```

**Image Before and After Applying Lookup Table
Operation**

For information about how `applylut`

maps pixel combinations in
the image to entries in the lookup table, see the reference page for `applylut`

.