Corindus used Model-Based Design with MATLAB and Simulink to develop the CorPath GRX platform control software and the real-time communications capability for telerobotic interventions.
Corindus engineers modeled the first-generation CorPath 200 System in Simulink. For the second-generation CorPath GRX, the engineers modeled and simulated new elements of the design, including brushless motors, rotational and prismatic joints for the guide catheter subsystem, and corresponding controllers.
After verifying the controller design through closed-loop simulations, the team created a prototype for in vivo testing and rapid control prototyping, using Simulink Coder™ and Simulink Real-Time™ to generate a real-time application from the model and run it on a Speedgoat real-time PC that interfaced with the actual robotic device.
For the production version of CorPath GRX, they generated C code for TI’s Piccolo™ microcontroller using Embedded Coder®. In addition to verifying this code through testing on the target, the team performed code coverage analysis with Simulink Coverage™ and static code analysis with Polyspace Bug Finder™. They included the results of these analyses in their submissions for FDA clearance.
To incorporate telerobotic capabilities into the CorPath platform, they built a communication link that sends video data and control commands between the remote and local sites via two Speedgoat target computers running Simulink Real-Time.
On the local (patient-side) Speedgoat system, they captured HD hemodynamics and fluoroscopy video data via a USB interface with Image Acquisition Toolbox™ and used a CAN interface to send commands to the GRX robot.
The remote (physician-side) Speedgoat system receives the video data and presents it to the physician. The team used Computer Vision Toolbox™ to scale images in the display and to insert text indicating the current network delay and frames-per-second rate of the display. For the remote side, they also developed a touchscreen control application and deployed it as a standalone application using MATLAB Compiler™.
The team implemented clock synchronization between the Speedgoat target computers with IEEE® 1588™ Precision Time Protocol (PTP) blocks from Simulink Real-Time.
To test the telerobotic capability, interventional cardiologist Dr. Ryan Madder performed procedures on an endovascular training simulator located 10 miles away. During these tests, the team assessed the effects of network latencies on usability by injecting network delays ranging from milliseconds to whole seconds into the system. These simulator-based tests were followed by in vivo animal tests.
The first in-human long-distance telerobotic-assisted PCIs were performed by Dr. Tejas Patel, who completed five successful procedures over two days on patients located 32 km away at the Apex Heart Institute in Ahmedabad, India.
Corindus engineers are now pursuing FDA clearance to use CorPath for neurovascular procedures. They are also using Model-Based Design to transition the proof-of-principle setup used on the first five procedures to a production system for widespread clinical use.